Geographia Polonica (1995) vol. 64

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The effects of total water hardness, smoke particles and sulphur dioxide levels on mortality in urban areas of England and Wales

Andrew Sloggett, Adrian Downing

Geographia Polonica (1995) vol. 64, pp. 177-186

Abstract

This is a longitudinal study to investigate the association of total water hardness, and smoke particulate and sulphur dioxide air pollution, with premature adult mortality in England and Wales between 1971 and 1989. Associations were found, in the expected directions, but most of these were mitigated by socio-economic and geographic controls. Despite controls, men living in hard water areas were de-monstrated to have significantly lower mortality than those living in soft water areas.

Keywords: Longitudinal Study, water hardness, air pollution, mortality

Andrew Sloggett, Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London University, 99 Gower St., London WC1E 6AZ, United Kingdom
Adrian Downing, Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London University, 99 Gower St., London WC1E 6AZ, United Kingdom