Geographia Polonica (1995) vol. 65

Global Change : Polish Perspectives 2


Modification of the effects of global climate change by plant cover structure in an agricultural landscape

Lech Ryszkowski, Andrzej Kędziora

Geographia Polonica (1995) vol. 65, pp. 5-34 | Full text

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To grasp the impact of plant cover structure on heat balance structure the components of heat balance of six ecosystems and two landscapes were calculated by using a mathematical model. The following three types of meteorological conditions during the growing season were taken into consideration:

  • Real meteorological conditions for normal, wet and dry years chosen from observations made in the period 1956-1992.
  • Assumed model meteorological conditions for a normal year, (averages from long-term values of meteorological data), and for an extremely dry and hot year, and an extremely wet and cold year.
  • Predicted meteorological conditions resulting from global changes.

The analysis of various meteorological situations has shown that plant cover has mitigating capacities in relation to the presumed effects of global climate change. Thus, in attempts to predict global changes at local level, the mitigating effects of plant cover must be taken into consideration.


Lech Ryszkowski, Agricultural University of Poznań Research Centre for the Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań, Poland
Andrzej Kędziora, Agricultural University of Poznań Research Centre for the Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań, Poland

Diurnal changes in the isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 in Kraków

Mirosław Zimnoch, Jarosław Nęcki, Tadeusz Florkowski

Geographia Polonica (1995) vol. 65, pp. 35-42 | Full text

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In this paper we present the preliminary results of measurements of diurnal changes in the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 in Kraków. We present four experiments done in different seasons of the year. Results show that the isotope composition is influenced by biospheric activity and local meteorological conditions.

Keywords: Stable isotopes, CO2 concentration, carbon cycle, diurnal cycle

Mirosław Zimnoch, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques The Academy of Mining and Metallurgy Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Jarosław Nęcki, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques The Academy of Mining and Metallurgy Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Tadeusz Florkowski, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques The Academy of Mining and Metallurgy Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland

Contemporary changes of Baltic Sea ice

Józef P. Girjatowicz, Krzysztof Kożuchowski

Geographia Polonica (1995) vol. 65, pp. 43-50 | Full text

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The paper presents results of time series analysis of observations of Baltic Sea ice. This research may be used to examine the effect of climatic warming on ice conditions in the Baltic Sea. The 273-year series of data on the maximum annual extent of ice cover in the Baltic Sea, reconstructed and published by Jurva, Seina and Palosuo is analyzed. Three parameters of ice conditions on the Polish coast are also utilized: the duration of the ice season (S), the number of days with ice (N) and the maximum thickness of ice (H). The latter data cover the period 1946/1947-1992/1993. Although a general trend towards milder ice seasons can only be seen in isolated series some significant trends are stated. Significant negative deviations of the amount of ice occured in the most recent 5-year period. The quasi-8-year cyclicity of climatic variation in ice conditions is predominant.

Keywords: Baltic Sea, ice cover, climatic variation, climatic trend, climate cyclicity

Józef P. Girjatowicz, Institute of Marine Sciences University of Szczecin ul. Felczaka 3a, 71-412 Szczecin, Poland
Krzysztof Kożuchowski [], Department of Environment Dynamics and Bioclimatology, University of Łódź, Lipowa 81, 90-568 Łódź, Poland

Reflections on climate variability within selected monthly mean time series in Libya and neighboring countries

Ali A. Almabruk

Geographia Polonica (1995) vol. 65, pp. 51-62 | Full text

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This paper contains some results of long-time series analysis with respect to climate variability and change. The data are the mean monthly air temperature, precipitation and humidity at different stations located in Libya and neighbouring countries. At our disposal were 26 time series of monthly and annual mean values with an average length of ca. 51 years. It is to be hoped that the data are free from any anthropogenic influences.The hypothesis that the mean values or variances are homogeneous has been subject to the falsification procedure of non-parametric tests: the runs test, the Mann-Kendall test for trends in the mean or the variance, Lombard's test of the number of change-points, and the Pettitt change-point test.Appropriate statistical computations led the author to conclude that the climate characterized by the investigated processes of monthly and annual values should be considered unstable.

Keywords: Statistical non-parametric tests, climate change — Libyan case

Ali A. Almabruk, Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences ul. Księcia Janusza 64, 01-452 Warszawa, Poland

Reconstructing the development of human impact from diatoms and 210Pb sediment dating (The gulf of Gdańsk — Southern Baltic Sea)

Andrzej Witkowski, Janusz Pempkowiak

Geographia Polonica (1995) vol. 65, pp. 63-78 | Full text

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The subjects of the study were the diatoms occurring in subfossil sediments of the Gulf of Gdańsk. Analysis of changes in the diatom flora from210Pb-dated sediment cores appeared to be an useful tool in reconstructing human impact on the environment of the Gulf of Gdańsk. The application of analysis of diatom coupled with other siliceous microalgae (Chrysophyceans and Ebridians) and sediment dating allowed for the determination of the progress of deterioration in environment of the Gulf of Gdańsk. It is shown that the change in the diatom flora of the study area coincides with industrialization inland and with the construction of the artificial mouth of the Wisla. The results obtained from the sedimentary record of the Gulf of Gdańsk are compared with those from other areas within the Baltic Sea.

Keywords: Diatoms, Chrysophyceans, Ebridians, sedimentary record, 210Pb-dating, industrial pollution of the sea, eutrophication, Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic Sea

Andrzej Witkowski, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk ul. Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia, Poland
Janusz Pempkowiak, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-765 Sopot, Poland

Structural changes in geographical systems. Fulfilling the conditions of sustainable development

Ryszard Domański

Geographia Polonica (1995) vol. 65, pp. 79-90 | Full text

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The present article is an attempt to introduce conditions of sustainable development into a descriptive model of a heterogeneous geographical system. Issues considered include the consequences of the introduction of these conditions, a hypothetical path of sustainable development, and strategies aiming to implementation of this idea. In the description and reasoning, the conceptual apparatus of synergetics is used in a non-mathematical way.

Keywords: Descriptive model of geographical system, conditions of sustainable development, consequences of introduction of sustainability conditions, path of sustainable development, strategies of sustainable development

Ryszard Domański, Academy of Economics Poznań, Department of Spatial and Environmental Economics al. Niepodległości 10, 60-967 Poznań, Poland

Global environmental policy: the role for economic instruments

Tomasz Żylicz

Geographia Polonica (1995) vol. 65, pp. 91-110 | Full text

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The paper discusses global environmental problems such as climate change and biodiversity conservation, and reviews policies to address them. Two broad groups of instruments are analyzed: taxes and marketable permits. The paper consists of 6 parts. In the first one, key policy issues are introduced. This is followed by a discussion of a possible global carbon tax. Using tax revenues for subsidizing environmentally sound projects is studied in section 3. Sections 4 and 5 discuss marketable permits and technological offsets as their special case. The paper concludes with an overview of the available set of policy instruments indicating their potential role in reaching efficient and equitable international environmental agreements.

Keywords: Global change, biodiversity, carbon tax, technology transfer, environmental conventions

Tomasz Żylicz, Warsaw Ecological Economics Center University of Warsaw ul. Długa 44/50, 00-241 Warszawa, Poland

Joint implementation projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions: prospects for Poland

Glen D. Anderson

Geographia Polonica (1995) vol. 65, pp. 111-126 | Full text

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Countries throughout the world have become increasingly concerned about the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the potential ramifications for a net increase in surface temperatures. Signatories to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), including Poland, have made a commitment to stabilize greenhouse gases (GHGs) to their 1990 (1988 for Poland) levels by the year 2000. Even if these countries are successful in stabilizing emissions, many experts believe that GHGs must be reduced even further. Negotiations on additional reductions in GHG emissions in the next century are now underway. Joint Implementation (JI) refers to a cooperative project between a donor (Annex I country under the FCCC) who provides funds or equipment to reduce GHGs in the territory of the host country. JI projects are attractive to donors because they provide the potential to achieve emission reductions at a lower cost/ton than investments in GHG reductions in their own country. To make JI attractive, donors need to receive credit for GHG reductions in the host country. Poland will most likely be a host country if it participates in JI projects because the cost/ton of GHG reductions in Poland will probably be below the costs of options in donor countries. The paper examines a range of issues that Poland would need to address to more effectively evaluate, implement, and monitor JI projects. Particular attention in the paper is focused on JI criteria, options for organizing a JI Secretariat, and legal issues related to negotiations and contracts the Government of Poland would undertake with donor countries and JI implementors, respectively.

Keywords: Greenhouse gas emissions, Framework Convention on Climate Change, Joint Implementation, donor country, host country, additionality

Types of agricultural in Britain in the light of the types of Agriculture Map of Europe

Jerzy Kostrowicki

Geographia Polonica (1989) vol. 65, pp. 133-154 | Full text

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Jerzy Kostrowicki, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland