Geographia Polonica (2002) vol. 75, iss. 2

Cities and networking in the Baltic Sea Region

Preface

Guest Editorial

Niels Boje Groth

Geographia Polonica (2002) vol. 75, iss. 2, pp. 3-10 | Full text

Further information

Keywords:

Niels Boje Groth, Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute (DFLRI) H0rsholm Kongevej 11 DK-2970 Horsholm, Denmark

Articles

Urban networking: trends and perspectives in the Baltic Sea Region

Harry Schulman, Vesa Kanninen

Geographia Polonica (2002) vol. 75, iss. 2, pp. 11-23 | Full text

Further information

Abstract:

In this article, urban networking has been defined as networking within an urban region as well as between such regions. The networking paradigm, arising from shifts in the conceptualization of space, is seen to reflect changes of importance between the levels of governance-of the city, the region, the nation, and the international community. Globalization and regionalization trends have resulted in patterns of urban action contributing to the presented generalized profiles of networking-oriented qualities. The organizing capacity of the urban region is recognized as the crucial success factor, and urban and regional policies are seen as key tools for successful networking.

Keywords: networking, urban policies, regionalization, interationalization, urban governance, organizing capacity

Harry Schulman, City of Helsinki Urban Facts, PO. Box 5500, 00099 City of Helsinki, Finland
Vesa Kanninen, Proville Urban Research Consultancy, Murtopakantie 18, 01730 Vantaa, Finland

Trade and foreign direct investments as measures of spatial integration in the Baltic Sea Region

Andreas Cornett, Folke Snickars

Geographia Polonica (2002) vol. 75, iss. 2, pp. 35-55 | Full text

Further information

Abstract:

The purpose of the current article is to provide a closer look at the processes of economic transition and integration in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) since the early 1990s. Focal points are regional and sub-regional integrative processes with regard to trade and foreign direct investment. Three complementary aspects of integration of the BSR are addressed. The first is a critical assessment of the BSR as a region within the European economic system. Secondly, on the basis of an analysis of economic flows within the region and to the outside the paper tries to evaluate whether the BSR constitutes a coherent functional economic region. Finally, an attempt is made to identify sub-regional economic units within the BSR. The analysis of economic linkages in the Baltic Sea Region shows no unequivocal picture of the BSR in the European spatial system. An evaluation of the pattern to bilateral trade and FDI flows within the region and between the region and external partners allows it to be concluded that most countries have more intensive relations with outside partners than with countries within the region. This does not mean that internal trade and FDI are unimportant. On the contrary, it seems that intra-BSR linkages are of major importance for the three Baltic countries in particular. The latter is also indicated in the results of industrial networking study. Similar indications are found with regard to the spatial concentration of foreign direct investment in the industrial networking survey. The analysis of economic linkages in this paper cannot prove that the BSR is a functional region according to the common understanding of the concept. External linkages are stronger than internal. This does not mean that integration is failing to take place in the BSR. We have found indications of geographical concentration of linkages (sub-regional integration) as well as close sectoral cooperation.

Keywords: economic transition, regional and sub-regional integrative processes, trade, foreign direct investment (FDI)

Andreas Cornett, University of Southern Denmark, Grundtvigs Alle 150, DK-6400 Soenderborg, Denmark
Folke Snickars, Royal Institute of Technology, Fiskartorpsvagen 15A, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

Spatial planning for FDI in transition economies: the case of St. Petersburg

Nina Oding

Geographia Polonica (2002) vol. 75, iss. 2, pp. 57-74 | Full text

Further information

Abstract:

The paper addresses problems relating to the investment process in a region. By evaluating this process it is possible to obtain a picture of specific features and vital areas for FDI in St. Petersburg. Traditionally, the investment needs of the St. Petersburg economy have been reflected in city plans and programs. A new form of strategic planning allows the city's administration and the rest of the urban community to join forces in transforming employment patterns, technologies and the urban environment. In addition, an Investment Strategy for the Rehabilitation of the Centre of St. Petersburg (1999) has been developed on the basis of the Strategic Plan.

Keywords: investments, St. Petersburg economy, Strategic Plan

Nina Oding, ICSER "Leontief Centre" Per. Antonenko, 6 b, St. Petersburg, Russia, 190000

Planning urban systems in Soviet times and in the era of transition: the case of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

Jurgis Vanagas, Zaiga Kriśjane, Rivo Noorkoiv, Eugenius Staniunas

Geographia Polonica (2002) vol. 75, iss. 2, pp. 75-100 | Full text

Further information

Abstract:

The article deals with the principles of planning the urban system during the Soviet era in the three Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The main items of Soviet regional and urban planning doctrine are first described and an outline given of urban network development in the programmes and projects elaborated during the post-war decades. Some light is then shed on the peculiarities of the urbanization processes and evolution of urban networks during the period of transition. The article outlines the way in which the restoration of independence in 1990 economic and political conditions change fundamentally in these republics, with concomitant altering of goals and problems in both regional and urban planning.

Keywords: regional planning, urban network, central command-type system, transitional period, free market economy

Jurgis Vanagas, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio alley 11, LT-2040 Vilnius, Lithuania
Zaiga Kriśjane, epartment of Human Geography, University of Latvia, Alberta 10, LV 1215 Riga, Latvia
Rivo Noorkoiv, Geomedia Ltd., Riiiitli 4, EE-51007 Tartu, Estonia
Eugenius Staniunas, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio alley 11, LT-2040 Vilnius, Lithuania

Urban systems in the Baltic Sea Region: metropolitan regions take the lead

Tomas Hanell, Bue Nielsen

Geographia Polonica (2002) vol. 75, iss. 2, pp. 101-115 | Full text

Further information

Abstract:

Traditionally, apart from having had a role as gateways to national economies, capital or metropolitan areas in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) have primarily acted within the framework of their national urban systems. This has at least to some extent guaranteed a more balanced development pattern between these cities and their respective countries. In the 1990s this balance was challenged by recent changes in technology, the economic system, regional (or international) integration and demography that have called for changes in the regional urban system. The increasing importance of the knowledge-based economy, the concentration of R&D, and increasing competition among cities and countries, have all acted as engines for an unusually marked polarisation of economic activities to just a few of the larger BSR cities. While the experience in the cities of the eastern BSR is to a certain extent similar to that of the western parts, the development of an open market economy in the eastern BSR is adding further momentum to their growth.

Keywords: urban system, regional development, regional integration, Baltic Sea Region

Tomas Hanell, Nordregio - Nordic Centre for Spatial Development, Box 1658, S-lll 86 Stockholm, Sweden
Bue Nielsen, Spatial Planning Department, Ministry of Environment, Hoejbro Plads 4, DK- 1200 Copenhagen K, Denmark

National urban systems in the Baltic Sea Region: trends and challenges

Piotr Korcelli, Niels Boje Groth, Ewa Nowosielska

Geographia Polonica (2002) vol. 75, iss. 2, pp. 117-143 | Full text

Further information

Abstract:

The point of departure in the search for the emergence of international urban systems must be offered by studies on the development of national urban systems.The project on Urban Systems and Urban Networking in the Baltic Sea Region (USUN) has shown that in the 1990s the national urban systems throughout the Baltic Sea Region experienced a concentration of economic activity in the largest cities. However, some medium-sized regional centres situated outside national core areas also proved dynamic, something that was revealed by studies on urban networking undertaken within the project. In this article, the concept of urban systems is examined, with recent trends and challenges discussed, together with the prospects for a balancing of the development of urban systems through a fostering of the dynamics of second-layer cities with higher education functions taken as an example.

Keywords: national urban system, inter-urban competition and cooperation, second-layer cities, urban policy, Baltic Sea Region

Piotr Korcelli, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warszawa, Poland
Niels Boje Groth, Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute (DFLRI) H0rsholm Kongevej 11 DK-2970 Horsholm, Denmark
Ewa Nowosielska, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

Book review

Consultancy and Innovation. The business service revolution in Europe. Ed. Peter Wood. Routlege, London and New York 2002

Ewa Nowosielska

Geographia Polonica (2002) vol. 75, iss. 2, pp. 145-149 | Full text

Further information

Keywords:

Ewa Nowosielska, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland