Geographia Polonica (2019) vol. 92, iss. 2

Articles

Variability of the particulate matter air pollution of Polish cities with a prediction until 2020

Damian Łowicki

Geographia Polonica (2019) vol. 92, iss. 2, pp. 161-171 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0142

Further information

Abstract:

Air pollution with particulate matter is a serious problem in Europe, especially in Poland. Despite the fact that the issue of particulate air pollution concerns both big agglomerations and smaller towns, and even villages, due to the population density and chemical composition of the particulate matter, the actions to limit the concentration are focused on big cities. In this study the data for 30 Polish cities and urban agglomerations from 2000-2016 was analyzed to show the temporal and spatial variability of the pollutants level and to preparethe prediction until 2020. The analysis showed that although for most cities a decreasing trend was observed, there are a few cities that will not achieve the assumed level in 2020. Another fact is that for some cities that currently meet the average annual standards, the limits in 2020 are expected to be exceeded.

Keywords: particulate matter, air pollution, Poland, cities, prediction

Damian Łowicki [damek@amu.edu.pl], Faculty of Geographical and Geological Sciences Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań: Poland

The role of topography, canopy gaps, and forest edges in the distribution of windthrow damage in the Western Tatra Mountains, Poland

Dariusz Strzyżowski

Geographia Polonica (2019) vol. 92, iss. 2, pp. 173-187 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0143

Further information

Abstract:

Windthrows are ubiquitous in forest environments, and they lead to many ecologic, pedologic, and geomorphic consequences. The distribution of wind damage is not uniform, and may be controlled by many factors. This study examines the role of topography, canopy gaps, and forest edges in the distribution of windthrow damage within the Polish part of the Western Tatra Mountains (121.7 km2). A set of aerial photographs was used to map windthrows created in 4 different periods: before 2009, 2009-2012, 2012-2014, and 2014-2015. GIS mapping, image classification, and t-test were applied to analyze the data. Among all topographic characteristics, the highest diversification of windthrow distribution was observed in the case of aspect, which was probably connected with different wind directions in analyzed periods. Slope and elevation also controlled damage distribution, mainly by a decreased damage within the steepest slopes and the highest elevations. Canopy gaps did not influence damage distribution significantly. Forest edges, particularly those created by recent windthrow, were the most important factor influencing the distribution of wind damage.

Keywords: forest damage, wind, GIS analysis, spatial pattern, topography, canopy gaps, forest edge, Tatra National Park

Dariusz Strzyżowski [dariusz.strzyzowski@doctoral.uj.edu.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Management Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków: Poland

Air temperature and location of isobaric surfaces in relation to atmospheric circulation, based on radiosonde data from Legionowo, Poland

Grzegorz Urban, Michał K. Kowalewski

Geographia Polonica (2019) vol. 92, iss. 2, pp. 189-209 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0144

Further information

Abstract:

This paper analyses the changes of temperature at the ground-level and the temperature and location of the selected isobaric surfaces in relation to Lityński atmospheric circulation (1969) as modified by Pianko-Kluczyńska (2007). The basic data used in this paper were everyday radiosonde measurements obtained from the Aerological Station in Legionowo in the years 2001-2010 at 00 UTC. The subject of the analysis were yearly and seasonal average temperatures as well as the locations of isobaric surfaces. The biggest differences between isobaric surfaces locations during anticyclonic kinds of circulation and those during cyclonic ones occur in winter, while the smallest such differences appear since May till September. When analysing the circulation type (direction and kind), it was established that isobaric surfaces are located at the lowest level during circulations from the northern quadrant. The universality of the circulation calendar which was used and the geographical location of the Aerological Station in Legionowo entitle us to claim the results of this study to be representative for the lowland of Central Europe.

Keywords: radiosonde data, isobaric surface, atmospheric circulation, air temperature, Central Europe lowland

Grzegorz Urban [grzegorz.urban@imgw.pl], Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute Podleśna 61, 01-673 Warsaw: Poland
Michał K. Kowalewski [michal.kowalewski@imgw.pl], Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute Podleśna 61, 01-673 Warsaw: Poland

Total solar radiation in Zakopane and at Mount Kasprowy Wierch (Western Carpathians, Poland) in 1986-2015

Elwira Żmudzka, Kinga Kulesza

Geographia Polonica (2019) vol. 92, iss. 2, pp. 211-231 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0145

Further information

Abstract:

The differences in the inflow of radiant energy at two stations in the Tatra Mountains were analysed, as well as the role of cloud cover in shaping of radiation conditions (using nephological characteristic days). The average increase in the annual sum of total radiation from Zakopane to Kasprowy Wierch is 193 MJ·m-2per 1000 m (5.3%). The influence of cloudiness on the inflow of radiant energy to these stations manifests itself i.e. in significantly smaller daily sums of total radiation from mid-May to the end of August at the peak station than at the station lying at the foot of the mountains. For the period 1986-2015, there was an increaseof 0.03 MJ·m-2·day-1·year-1 in the annual average daily sums of total radiation in Zakopane, despite a significant increase in the amount of cloud cover in the warm half of the year. 

 

Keywords: total radiation, cloud cover, nephological characteristic days, Tatras, trend of changes

Elwira Żmudzka [e.zmudzka@uw.edu.pl], Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies University of Warsaw Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warsaw: Poland
Kinga Kulesza [kingakulesza@uw.edu.pl], Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies University of Warsaw Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warsaw: Poland

What strategies make compatible the stakes of nature conservation and the stakes of economic growth in protected area? Example of El Kala National Park, Algeria

Diaf Imene, Touati Bouzid, Pierre Pech

Geographia Polonica (2019) vol. 92, iss. 2, pp. 233-248 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0146

Further information

Abstract:

Public policies to protect natural environments are becoming increasingly integrated in many countries. However,in some countries, nature management policies do not pay much attention to issues raised by local populations, especially development issues. These seem often incompatible with the logic of protection of nature defended by the national administrations. Recent studies show that there are ways to make these issues compatible. The knowledge on this subject is still weak for the southern shore of the Mediterranean region. Our study focuses on the case of a natural park located in the northeast of Algeria: the sector of the El Kala National Park (EKNP). This territory faces a double strategic ambition: to strengthen the protection of nature but also to develop the agricultural economy and tourism. Our method relies on the analysis of 3 types of data: national statistics of Algeria, conservation and development strategy documents and satellite data. Our study shows an increase in the area of EKNP vegetation between 1995 and 2005.

Keywords: conservation, tourism, protected areas, local development, El Kala National Park, Algeria

Diaf Imene [diaf_imene@umc.edu.dz], Faculté des Sciences de la Terre, de la Géographie et de l’Aménagement du Territoire Université Frères Mentouri BP 325, Route Ain EL Bey, 27017 Constantine: Algeria
Touati Bouzid, Faculté des Sciences de la Terre, de la Géographie et de l’Aménagement du Territoire Université Frères Mentouri BP 325, Route Ain EL Bey, 27017 Constantine: Algeria
Pierre Pech [pierre.pech@univ-paris1.f], Institut de Géographie, Université Paris I-Sorbonne, 191, rue Saint-Jacques, 75005 Paris, CNRS Laboratoire de Géographie Physique 1, pl. A.Briand 92195, Meudon Cedex, France