Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 2

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Ecosystem services – classification and different approaches at various levels of biosphere organisation - a literature review

Ewa Roo-Zielińska, Bożenna Grabińska

Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 2, pp. 65-81
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2012.2.12

Abstract

In the literature on the subject, evaluation of ecosystem services (ES) is regarded as a one of the important scientific problemsof nature protection, environmental economics and ecology. ES are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems.The concept of ecosystem services is generally defined as a set of products and functions of ecosystems that benefit society.The present paper contains definitions of the most common concepts found in the literature, i.e. ecosystem services,the drivers behind these services, trade-offs and synergies, and interactions between different categories of services.

Keywords: ecosystem services, ecological and spatial scale, management, land use, biodiversity

Ewa Roo-Zielińska [e.roo@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Bożenna Grabińska [b.grab@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland