Geographia Polonica (2020) vol. 93, iss. 1

Articles

Long-term landscape dynamics in the depopulated Carpathian Foothills: A Wiar River basin case study

Andrzej Norbert Affek, Maria Zachwatowicz, Jerzy Solon

Geographia Polonica (2020) vol. 93, iss. 1, pp. 5-23 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/GPol.0160

Further information

Abstract:

Recently, marginal lands have been attracting attention as areas of high cultural and natural value that are undergoing profound, uncontrolled transformations. These changes are seen as a threat to the cohesion and identity of existing landscapes. However, ongoing processes are often difficult to interpret and evaluate without a long-term historical perspective. Here, we focused on understanding the long-term landscape dynamics in the depopulated and economically marginalized Wiar River basin, where 87% of inhabitants were displaced after World War II. A detailed, spatially explicit land-cover analysis based on eight series of topographic data (dating from 1780 to 2017), in line with the review of archival sources and literature, allowed us for identification of patterns and drivers of change. We linked the driving forces and the resulting landscape properties to four distinct historical periods (i.e. pre-industrial, industrial, socialist, and free-market). We demonstrated how the landscape of 25 villages, dominated for centuries by open farmland, shifted after WWII into extensively forested, and that not all regions in Europe follow the pattern of increasing rate of land-cover change.

Keywords: land-cover change, spatially explicit, driving forces, resettlement action, land abandonment, old maps, South-east Poland

Andrzej Norbert Affek [a.affek@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Maria Zachwatowicz [m.zachwatowicz@uw.edu.pl], Department of Geoecology, Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies University of Warsaw Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warsaw: Poland
Jerzy Solon [j.solon@igipz.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

Reconstruction of the morphology and hydrography of the centre of Kraków before the mid-13th century

Adam Łajczak, Roksana Zarychta

Geographia Polonica (2020) vol. 93, iss. 1, pp. 25-50 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/GPol.0161

Further information

Abstract:

The paper concerns investigations on urban geomorphology. The subject of the paper is the historic centre of Kraków (or Cracow) where the pre-human relief became masked due to the rapid increase in cultural deposits from the mid-13th century onwards. The aim of the investigation is the reconstruction of the original topography, relief and hydrography of this area based on rich sources of materials in papers and non-publisheddata on geology, geoengineering, archaeology, history, and also on maps and panoramic drawings of the town. A digital elevation model has been generated, which showed the topography of the study area in the period before the mid-13th century. Structural analysis, cross validation test and estimation by ordinary kriging method were carried out. The final cartographic work was prepared with the use of QGIS and Surfer software.The distribution of landforms in the study area in the mid-13th century is presented as a proposed variant of the geomorphological map prepared by the authors. The former relief was evaluated in terms of its potential for encouraging settlement.

Keywords: pre-urban morphology, Kraków, Vistula, meandering river, limestone horst, Pleistocene terrace, Holocene floodplain, digital cartography, geostatistics, ordinary kriging

Adam Łajczak [alajczak@o2.pl (corresponding author)], Institute of Geography Pedagogical University of Kraków Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków: Poland
Roksana Zarychta [roksana.zarychta@up.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography Pedagogical University of Kraków Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków: Poland

Floodplain forms along the lowland Maros River, Hungary

Márton Balogh, Timea Kiss, Károly Fiala, István Fehérváry

Geographia Polonica (2020) vol. 93, iss. 1, pp. 51-68 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/GPol.0162

Further information

Abstract:

The floodplain forms of lowland rivers act as fluvial archives, as their morphology, material and spatial characteristics refer to the hydromorphological changes of the river and (dis)connectivity of the alluvial system. The aims of the research are (1) to identify natural levees, crevasses, and point-bars on the Hungarian floodplain section of the Maros River, (2) to measure their morphometric parameters, and (3) to analyse their spatial and temporal variations in connection with various human impacts. Six genetic types of natural levees and pointbar systems developed as the result of various human impacts, thus the development of the forms terminated or became laterally limited.

Keywords: natural levee, crevasse, point-bar, human impact, LiDAR survey, Maros River, Hungarian floodplain

Márton Balogh [baloghmarton.geo@gmail.com (corresponding author)], Department of Physical Geography and Geoinformatics University of Szeged Egyetem u. 2-6, 6722, Szeged: Hungary
Timea Kiss, Department of Physical Geography and Geoinformatics University of Szeged Egyetem u. 2-6, 6722, Szeged: Hungary
Károly Fiala, Lower Tisza District Water Directorate Stefánia 4, 6720, Szeged: Hungary
István Fehérváry, Lower Tisza District Water Directorate Stefánia 4, 6720, Szeged: Hungary

Durability of forest cover in the Ochotnica Valley (Gorce Mts.) and in the Solinka Valley (Bieszczady Mts.) in the 18th-21st centuries

Janusz Godziek, Bartłomiej Szypuła

Geographia Polonica (2020) vol. 93, iss. 1, pp. 69-88 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/GPol.0163

Further information

Abstract:

Forests in the Carpathians are increasing their range mainly due to the expansion in former agricultural areas. In this study conducted for two valleys (88 and 69 km2) topographical maps from 18th to 20th century and an orthophotomap were used in order to determine the durability of forest cover. This durability is understoodas the period of time during which a given area was presumably occupied by forest. A digital elevation model (DEM) and a digital surface model (DSM) of 1x1m resolution were applied to investigate the relationshipbetween forest cover durability and altitude, slope, aspect and the mean height of trees. The variety of spatial structure of forest cover durability results mainly from the differences of the examined valleys accessibility. Positive correlation between forest cover durability and the mean height of trees and altitude found for both valleys. A directly proportional relationship between forest cover durability and slopes also occurs in the Solinka Valley.

Keywords: forest cover durability, Forest cover, Bieszczady Mts., Gorce Mts., digital elevation model, digital surface model, cartographic analysis

Janusz Godziek [j.godziek23@gmail.com (corresponding author)], Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Bartłomiej Szypuła [bartlomiej.szypula@us.edu.pl], Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland

Recent trends on human thermal bioclimate conditions in Kyiv, Ukraine

Olga Shevchenko, Sergiy Snizhko, Andreas Matzarakis

Geographia Polonica (2020) vol. 93, iss. 1, pp. 89-106 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/GPol.0164

Further information

Abstract:

The human-biometeorological conditions in Kyiv (Ukraine) and changes in the frequency of heat stress during the summer period due to recent climate trends were analyzed. The evaluation based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The results revealed the highest probability of thermal comfortable conditions in Kyiv is from the last 10-day period of April to the end of June and from the last 10-day period of August to the end of September. The probability of heat stress reached nearly 90% during the second and third 10-day periods of July. A pronounced increase in thermal stress during the studied heat wave cases (HW), as well as increasing amount of days with heat stress in the period 1991-2015, were found.

Keywords: human thermal comfort, physiologically equivalent temperature, Kyiv, heat wave, heat stress

Olga Shevchenko [olga.s.meteo@gmail.com (corresponding author)], Department of Meteorology and Climatology, Geography Faculty Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv: Ukraine
Sergiy Snizhko [snizhkosi@gmail.com], Department of Meteorology and Climatology, Geography Faculty Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv: Ukraine
Andreas Matzarakis [andreas.matzarakis@dwd.de], Research Center for Human Biometeorology German Meteorological Service Stefan-Meier-Str. 4, 79104 Freiburg: Germany; Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Werthmannstrasse 10, D-79085 Freiburg: Germany

Park in the periphery: Land use and land cover change and forest fragmentation in and around Yangoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Manipur, India

Khangsembou Bungnamei, Anup Saikia

Geographia Polonica (2020) vol. 93, iss. 1, pp. 107-120 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/GPol.0165

Further information

Abstract:

This study documents the spatio-temporal land use and land cover dynamics of Yangoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary (YLWLS) in Manipur, India. Landsat imageries at three points of time spanning 38 years (1978, 2000 and 2016) were taken into account. Supervised image classification techniques were employed. Fragstats software was used to derive five landscape metrics, namely, class area (CA), number of patches (NP), largest patch index (LPI), percentage of landscape (PLAND) and mean patch size (MPS), to quantitatively assess the level of landscape fragmentation in the YLWLS. Dense and moderately dense forests decreased markedly during 1978-2000 from 46.5% to 40% and 38% to 28% of the total geographical area, respectively. However, between 2000 and 2016, the sanctuary managed to gain 840 ha of dense forest through various afforestation activities. The overall change in YLWLS during 1978-2016 indicates a substantial transition of dense and moderately dense forests.

Keywords: land use, land cover, fragmentation, wildlife sanctuary, buffer, Manipur, India

Khangsembou Bungnamei [natikbmei@gmail.com (corresponding author)], Department of Geography Gauhati University Guwahati 781014, Assam: India
Anup Saikia [asaikia@gauhati.ac.in], Department of Geography Gauhati University Guwahati 781014, Assam: India

Hydrochemical differentiation of selected reservoirs in Carpathian Mts. and Eastern European Lowland

Małgorzata Kijowska-Strugała, Łukasz Wiejaczka, Irina Grigoryeva, Aleksey Komissarov

Geographia Polonica (2020) vol. 93, iss. 1, pp. 121-133 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/GPol.0166

Further information

Abstract:

The aim of the analysis was to compare physicochemical parameters and chemical composition of two groups of artificial reservoirs, mountain and lowland ones, characterised by different parameters and functions. Three mountain artificial reservoirs (Klimkówka, Dobczyce, Czorsztyn) located in the Upper Vistula basin (Carpathian Mountains in Poland) and three lowland reservoirs (Ivankovo, Verhnevolzhskoye, Vyshnevolotzkoye) located in the Upper Volga basin (Eastern European Lowland in Russia) were selected for the study. Data for the summer season in 2009-2013 were used in the analysis. Mountain reservoirs display high water concentrations of sulphates, chlorides and biogenic nitrates, and lower concentrations of ammonium and oxygen indicatorin relation to lowland reservoirs. Similar concentrations of phosphates were noticed in both the mountainand the lowland reservoirs. The hydrochemical differentiation between the individual mountain reservoirswas small, and statistically significant differences only occurred for SEC. Greater differentiation of the hydrochemical parameters was found among the lowland reservoirs. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated with regard to SEC, Cl- and NO3-.

Keywords: water chemistry, lowland reservoirs, mountain reservoirs, Upper Volga basin, Vistula basin

Małgorzata Kijowska-Strugała [mkijowska@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland
Łukasz Wiejaczka [wieja@zg.pan.krakow.pl (corresponding author)], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland