Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 4

Articles

The role of locality and place-specific development paths in creating smart cities: The example of middle-sized Hungarian cities

Ádám Szalai Szalai, Szabolcs Fabula

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 4, pp. 483-502 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0216

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Abstract:

Smart cities have spawned a global discourse, which is, however, dominated by notions and theories originating from major metropolis regions in the Global North/West, as well as by quantitative approaches. Drawing on case studies from Hungary, this paper aims to reveal how place-specific factors influence smart-city development and to discover the characteristics of this development in the Hungarian context. For this purpose, qualitative research methods, namely a content analysis of policy documents and semi-structured expert interviews,were used. Based on the results, we distinguished four development paths: representative, stalled, organizational model, and focused smart city. Findings broaden the general understanding of smart-city development, providing policy recommendations for the future adaptation of the concept.

Keywords: smart city, Hungary, case study, global-local context, medium-sized cities

Ádám Szalai Szalai [szalaiad@sol.cc.u-szeged.hu], Economic and Social Geography Department University of Szeged Egyetem u. 2, 6722 Szeged: Hungary
Szabolcs Fabula [fabula.szabolcs@geo.u-szeged.hu], Economic and Social Geography Department University of Szeged Egyetem u. 2, 6722 Szeged: Hungary

Ownership transformation in East-Central Europe in the pre EU-accession period. Inter-firm ties and control functions: The case of Poland

Przemysław Śleszyński, Ewa Korcelli-Olejniczak

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 4, pp. 503-522 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0217

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Abstract:

The Article focuses on the first period of political and socio-economic transformation in Poland (1989-2004) and describes the change in capital ownership links during the transition from a centrally planned to a freemarket economy. It constitutes an important research issue in the context of understanding the economic transformation in East-Central Europe, in particular the mechanisms of flow of foreign capital into certain areas in space. The processes have brought about a new organization of linkages between these realms, especially between large metropolitan areas. The spatial pattern of capital ownership links of large enterprises in Poland (1242 firms) is analyzed against the hierarchical structure of the national urban system. It is shown that in the process of inflow of foreign investments, the city of Warsaw has assumed a nodal position in the network of transnational and inward capital linkages, Spatial inter-firm ownership relations, as documented in the study are discussed and generalized in the form of a two-layer core-periphery model. The empirical results demonstrate how the foreign investments have contributed to the metropolization phenomena by fostering the position of the capital city as well as of other large urban centres.

Keywords: post-socialist transformation, EU-accession, inter-firm links, ownership, city networks, decision-control functions

Przemysław Śleszyński [psleszyn@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00‑818 Warszawa, Poland
Ewa Korcelli-Olejniczak [eko@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00‑818 Warszawa, Poland

Changes in the labour market during the COVID-19 pandemic and their spatial interactions – evidence from monthly data for Polish LAU

Dorota Ciołek

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 4, pp. 523-538 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0218

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Abstract:

In addition to direct negative effects in terms of morbidity and mortality, the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 also has indirect negative effects that concerned, among others, the labour market. This study analysed changes in the unemployment rate that were observed at the level of Polish Local Administrative Units (LAU) during the ten months of the pandemic. Both annual and monthly data were applied. Using cross-sectional and panel econometric modelling with spatial interactions it was shown that the observed increase in unemployment was strongly influenced by the share of employment in services, especially in less knowledge-intensive services such as: trade, accommodation and gastronomy. Moreover, it turns out that a higher share of women working in services was associated with a higher increase in unemployment than in the case of men working in services. Significant positive spatial relationships between local labour markets in LAUs were also identified. It was also shown that both the timing and severity of containment measures were significant. The strongest effect of the lockdown was observed three months after its introduction, while after six months the effect was significantly smaller. The study's findings may be important for post-pandemic recovery plans.

Keywords: COVID-19, labour market, unemployment, containment measures, spatial panel model

Dorota Ciołek [dorota.ciolek@ug.edu.pl], Faculty of Management, Econometrics Department University of Gdańsk Armii Krajowej 101, 81-824 Sopot: Poland

Polish shopping malls attractiveness in the opinion of young consumers: Structural modelling (SEM)

Anna Irena Szymańska, Monika Płaziak

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 4, pp. 539-553 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0219

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Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is the discussion of key factors that determine the underlying motivation of certain kinds of young consumer behavior in terms of selection of shopping malls as places of shopping for goods and services. The identification was based on an available literature and on a verification of the power of influence of selected determinants on the underlying motivation of consumer behavior. A theoretical model is proposed, which has been subjected to a verification process using structural modeling (SEM). The authors observed significant relationships between principal factors such as personal factors, mall environment, situational factors,and mall visiting among young consumers. Furthermore, in the opinions expressed by young shoppers, the mall environment and situational factors were significantly higher rated than personal factors. In addition, the authors found that the young shoppers’ personal factors section needs improvement.

Keywords: shopping mall, SEM modeling, consumer behavior

Anna Irena Szymańska [szymansa@uek.krakow.pl], Management Institute, Department of Trade and Market Institutions Cracow University of Economics ul. Rakowicka 27, 31-510 Kraków, Poland
Monika Płaziak [monika.plaziak@up.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography, Department of Geography of Urban and Rural Areas Pedagogical University of Krakow ul. Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków, Poland

Travel preferences of Finnish cross-border tourists: Opportunities and limitations for Russian Karelia

Svetlana V. Kondrateva, Ekaterina A. Shlapeko

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 4, pp. 555-572 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0220

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Abstract:

The study aims to examine travel preferences of Finnish cross-border tourists with special reference to the Republic of Karelia, Russia. Data were collected using paper-based and online surveys from 300 respondents travelling from Finland to the Russian Karelia. Although cross-border tourists are a significant part in the inbound tourist flow to Russian Karelia, several obstacles for this type of tourism have been revealed. Measures to stimulate Finnish tourists to travel to Russian Karelia are suggested. The results of this study can be used to improve Karelian tourist products by providing services as expected by tourists. The findings are limited to visitors of Russian Karelia and should therefore be interpreted with caution.

Keywords: cross-border tourism, Finnish cross-border tourists, Republic of Karelia, travel preferences, border region

Svetlana V. Kondrateva [svkorka@mail.ru], Department of Regional Economic Policy, Institute of Economics Karelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences 50 Al. Nevsky Prospect, 185030 Petrozavodsk: Republic of Karelia, Russia
Ekaterina A. Shlapeko [shlapeko_kate@mail.ru], Department of Regional Economic Policy, Institute of Economics Karelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences 50 Al. Nevsky Prospect, 185030 Petrozavodsk: Republic of Karelia, Russia

The perception of Bihor mountain tourist destination, Romania

Grigore Vasile Herman, Norbert Banto, Tudor Caciora, Mihaela Ungureanu, Sorin Furdui, Lavinia Daiana Garai, Vasile Grama

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 4, pp. 573-587 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0221

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Abstract:

Tourism represents one of the economic sectors with major implications in the sustainable development of the mountain areas. The tourists’ perception regarding the image of the tourist destinations is a key requirement that all the stakeholders in tourism have to take into account, due to its major role in shaping and directing the tourist flows and in the development of local communities, by extension. In terms of methodology, the questionnaire method was used in this study, with a face-to-face implementation technique. Among others, the questionnaire had targeted the degree of knowledge concerning Bihor Mountain destination, the tourist consumer habits and the tourists’ perception related to the quality-price ratio because of tourist consumption. The results show that most of the respondents have stated that they have not visited Bihor Mountain Tourist Destination for the first time, coming back here even several times a year because of its multiple tourist attractions and the extremely convenient quality-price ratio. All these show a positive perception of the majority of tourists regarding the visited destination, being materialised in an increased flow of visitors and the beneficial effects on the local economy and the preservation of the mountain areas.

Keywords: Bihor tourist destination, tourists’ perception, tourist consumer habits, mountain tourism

Grigore Vasile Herman [grigoreherman@yahoo.com], Faculty of Geography, Tourism and Sport University of Oradea University Street 1, Oradea, 410 087: Romania
Norbert Banto [bnorbert24@yahoo.com], Bihor Destination Management Agency Primăriei Street 2, Oradea: Romania
Tudor Caciora [tudor.caciora@yahoo.com], Faculty of Geography, Tourism and Sport University of Oradea University Street 1, Oradea, 410 087: Romania
Mihaela Ungureanu [umihaela59@yahoo.com], Faculty of Geography, Tourism and Sport University of Oradea University Street 1, Oradea, 410 087: Romania; Bihor Destination Management Agency Primăriei Street 2, Oradea: Romania
Sorin Furdui [sorin1182@yahoo.com], Faculty of Geography, Tourism and Sport University of Oradea University Street 1, Oradea, 410 087: Romania ; Bihor Destination Management Agency Primăriei Street 2, Oradea: Romania
Lavinia Daiana Garai [daianagarai@yahoo.com], Faculty of Geography, Tourism and Sport University of Oradea University Street 1, Oradea, 410 087: Romania
Vasile Grama [vasile.grama2014@gmail.com], Faculty of Geography, Tourism and Sport University of Oradea University Street 1, Oradea, 410 087: Romania

Historical heraldic symbols as a marker of reproducing and transforming regional identity: The case of Ukraine

Oleksiy Gnatiuk, Anatoliy Melnychuk

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 4, pp. 589-607 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0222

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Abstract:

This paper demonstrates a way to examine the transformation of the territorial shape of the region. The official symbols (flags and emblems) of modern administrative units of Ukraine were analyzed for the usage of heraldic symbols of historical regions that lost their administrative status a century before. The results confirm more or less constant symbolic reproduction of historical regions, but their spatial shapes has changed under the influence of new administrative boundaries. Simultaneously, in certain cases historical heraldry loses its former meaning and is involved into the development and strengthening of identities with new administrative regions rather than historical ones.

Keywords: transformation of the identity of a region, territorial shape of the region, heraldic symbols, historical regions, administrative reform, Ukraine

Oleksiy Gnatiuk [alexgnat22@ukr.net], Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv Volodymyrska Street 64/13, 01601, Kyiv: Ukraine
Anatoliy Melnychuk [melnychuk@knu.ua], Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv Volodymyrska Street 64/13, 01601, Kyiv: Ukraine

The Chinese minority in Bucharest: A case study of Chinese children raised and cared for by Romanian nannies

Irena Mocanu, Radu Sageata, Nicoleta Damian, Bianca Mitrică, Mihaela Persu

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 4, pp. 609-629 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0223

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Abstract:

Since 1990, many Chinese immigrants have come to Romania. These Chinese persons are full time involved in the profitable wholesale and retail trade activities; they have families and children, cared for by Romanian nannies. The study is focused on the particularities of an intercultural dialogue, unique and recenlty highlighted in the Romanian society: between the Romanian nannies and Chinese children, located in a representative urban area for the Chinese minority. The aim of paper is to analyse how two cultures have interacted for the purpose of child care, focusing on the ways in which the life, experiences, attitudes and opportunities of Chinese children are socially and spatially shaped, influenced and structured by cultural features of the Romanian nannies.

Keywords: Chinese children • Romanian nannies • intercultural dialogue • Bucharest • Romania

Irena Mocanu [mocanitai@yahoo.com •], Institute of Geography Romanian Academy 12 Dimitrie Racoviţă street, Bucharest-2, RO-023993, Bucharest: Romania
Radu Sageata [rsageata@gmail.com], Institute of Geography Romanian Academy 12 Dimitrie Racoviţă street, Bucharest-2, RO-023993, Bucharest: Romania
Nicoleta Damian [nicoleta_damian2002@yahoo.com], Institute of Geography Romanian Academy 12 Dimitrie Racoviţă street, Bucharest-2, RO-023993, Bucharest: Romania
Bianca Mitrică [biancadumitrescu78@yahoo.com], Human Geography and Regional Development Department, Institute of Geography, Romanian Academy
Mihaela Persu [persu_mihaela@yahoo.com], Institute of Geography Romanian Academy 12 Dimitrie Racoviţă street, Bucharest-2, RO-023993, Bucharest: Romania