Geographia Polonica (2023) vol. 96, iss. 1
This paper is an introduction to a collection of nine studies that are intended to fill the gap in the literature associated with landform development and landscape changes related to natural forces and human activities in the Central European Mountains and their close forelands. The papers are grouped into four general categories that describe the influence of climate on glacial landforms and snow avalanches, the evolution of slopes in high mountains, the development of mid-mountain relief, and changes in fluvial systems in mountains and their forelands. This paper summarises the contributions of these studies to this special issue and attempts to outline possible avenues of future research on landforms and landscapes in mountainous areas.
email@example.com], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Jana 22, 31-018 Kraków: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences 38-311 Szymbark 430: Poland e-mail: email@example.com
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN
The Late Pleistocene Jupania palaeoglacier (area 0.85 km2, 1.7 km long) was reconstructed in the headwaters of the Ceremuşul Alb/Bilyj Cheremosh valley (Maramureş Mountains). The study area represents one of the most inaccessible natural areas in the Romanian part of the Eastern Carpathians where the legacy of the Pleistocene glaciation has recently been discovered. Based on mapping of glacial landforms and deposits,we reconstruct glacier dimension and ice-surface geometry, as well as estimate equilibrium line altitude( ELA) during the maximal ice extent (MIE). Well-preserved terminal moraines mark the extent of glacier front at ~1400 m a.s.l. Sedimentological analysis documents that the lateral moraines are sometimes overbuilt by 1-1.5 m thick colluvial deposits. The ELA for the Jupania palaeoglacier calculated with the Area-Altitude-Balance-Ratio (AABR) 1.6 was 1630 m. However, the gentle-sloping mountain-top could serve as an importantsnow contribution area to glacier mass balance; therefore, the ELA could potentially exist even higherat 1676 m. The resulting climatic ELA (1630-1676 m) in the south-eastern part of the Maramureş Mountains fits well with the rising trend of ELA towards the southeast observed between Chornohora (ELA = 1516 m) and Rodna Mountains (ELA = 1697 m). The SE rising trend of the ELA corresponds well with the dominant palaeowind direction suggested in the Carpathian region and supports the prevalence of zonal circulation pattern in Central Eastern Europe during the culumination of the last glaciation.
email@example.com], Faculty of Geography and Geology, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management Jagiellonian University Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Department of Geography University of Suceava 720229 Suceava: Romania
[email@example.com], Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection AGH University of Science and Technology Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków: Poland
The article discusses avalanche occurrence in the Slovenian Alps (SE Alps) in the context of climate change. It analyses the relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation and maximum snow depth over the last two centuries, and the relationships between maximum snow depth and avalanches over the last three decades. We argue that higher temperatures lead to precipitation in the form of rain at higher elevations even in winter, so that major wet avalanches occur already in winter rather than in early spring, as was more common in the past. A case study of extreme avalanches in January 2021 is presented to support the hypothesis.
firstname.lastname@example.org], Anton Melik Geographical Institute Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (ZRC SAZU) Anton Melik Geographical Institute Novi trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana: Slovenia
[email@example.com], Anton Melik Geographical Institute Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts Novi trg 2, SI – 1000 Ljubljana: Slovenia
This study presents the results of the first large-area monitoring of steep slopes in the Tatra Mountains. In the research, we used terrestrial laser scanning methods and GIS tools. We also performed crack density measurements. The results obtained demonstrate that the rate of change of slopes under the influence of weathering and rockfall processes is very variable both in time and space. The rate of retreat of 4 steep adjacent granitoid slopes over the same period ranged from 0.00013 ma-1 to 0.004 ma-1. The spatial variation in the numberand size of cavities was related primarily to the cracks density.
firstname.lastname@example.org], Institute of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice ul. Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland
[email@example.com], Institute of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice ul. Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Laser-3D al. Sosnowa 4, 30-224 Kraków: Poland
Rock walls and talus slopes, which are the most common features of high-mountain relief, have been researched for many years. Geomorphologists have taken particular interest in debris flows, which play a major role in the development of talus slopes. This paper presents the results of the first lichenometric dating of debris flows on the southern slopes of the Tatra Mountains. The greatest debris flow activity took place in the Little Ice Age and in the last two decades.
email@example.com], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences ul. św. Jana 22, 31-018 Kraków: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Nature Constantine The Philosopher University in Nitra Trieda Andreja Hlinku 1, 949 74 Nitra: Slovakia
[email@example.com], Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Nature Constantine The Philosopher University in Nitra Trieda Andreja Hlinku 1, 949 74 Nitra: Slovakia
Cylowa Zerwa landslide – debris flow located on the northern slope of Mt. Babia Góra (1725 m a.s.l.) within the 400 m wide altitude interval (1430-1024 m a.s.l.) is a knowable object which however has not been sufficiently noticed in geomorphological research. This paper, based on geomorphological, geological and dendrochronological investigations, as well as LiDAR data analysis, develops the following issues which describe the functioning of this object during the last ca. 150 years: Cylowa Zerwa in the gravity induced mass movements system of Mt. Babia Góra; relief of the landslide – debris flow and surrounding areas; stages of changes in limit and relief of the mass movement area during the last 150 years; relief elements of the Cylowa Zerwa which are related to debris flow; relationship between dates of the Cylowa Zerwa activation with annual spruce increments. The Cylowa Zerwa, as the only one among Mt. Babia Góra landslides studied, is distinguished by a clear bipartite relief – the upper segment is represented by rock packages, whereas landforms of the middle and lower segments are similar to those originated in the conditions of debris flow. The Cylowa Zerwa landslide – debris flow shows significant education values and it is a remarkable geotourist object.
firstname.lastname@example.org], Institute of Geography Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Krakow: Poland
[email@example.com], Institute of Nature Conservation Polish Academy of Sciences Adam Mickiewicz 33, 31-120 Krakow: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Institute of Biology Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Krakow: Poland
[email@example.com], Babia Góra National Park Zawoja-Barańcowa 1403, 34-223 Zawoja: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Babiogórski National Park 34-223 Zawoja 1403: Poland
[email@example.com], Babia Góra National Park Zawoja-Barańcowa 1403, 34-223 Zawoja: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Institute of Biology Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Krakow: Poland; Institute of Botany Polish Academy of Sciences Lubicz 46, 31-512 Kraków: Poland
The Sowie Mountains in the central part of the Sudetes range are an under-researched area in terms of geomorphology, despite their potential representativeness for a large number of terrains within the Bohemian Massif, built of metamorphic bedrock. Apart from providing an overview of past work, the paper summarizes the main topographic features of the massif using visualizations of the digital terrain model, and outlines the wide range of anthropogenic impacts on relief. Characteristic landforms of the Sowie Mountains include fault-generated lithology-controlled escarpments, ridge-and-valley topography near the escarpments, water-divide flats, gneissic tors, agrarian terraces and various landforms related to former mining and military use.
email@example.com], Institute of Geography and Regional Development University of Wrocław Pl. Uniwersytecki 1, 50-137 Wrocław: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Institute of Geography and Regional Development University of Wrocław Pl. Uniwersytecki 1, 50-137 Wrocław: Poland
[email@example.com], Institute of Geography and Regional Development University of Wrocław Pl. Uniwersytecki 1, 50-137 Wrocław: Poland
The objective of this study was to analyse land use and land cover in three catchments of the Polish Western Carpathians, using good practice guidance for estimating land degradation in the context of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. Orthophotomap analysis indicates that the vast majority of changes, especially those related to the withdrawal of agriculture, have resulted in land improvement. Relatively minorchanges leading to land degradation were associated with pressure from increasing population due to settlement development as well as the conversion of forested areas into grassland. The latter was dominant in the higher mountain catchments.
firstname.lastname@example.org], Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN[
The channels of multi-threaded (braided) rivers occur commonly in areas that fulfill certain conditions such as substantial influx of bed material and gradients large enough to create significant energy of flowing water. Natural conditions favoring the formation of multithreaded channels are present in the Carpathians in Poland in Podhale – a large basin located in the piedmont area of the high-mountain Tatra massif. The area had experienced glaciation in the Pleistocene. Yet the 20th century – and especially its second half – was a period of rapid and irreversible elimination of braided channels across the region. The Białka is considered to be the last braided river in the Carpathians in Poland. Many parameters like: structure (morphologic reach sequence), degree of braiding (BI index, W/D) and also a number of hydrodynamic ones (unit stream power,critical stress, shear stress, others) were investigated in order to assess a current stage of development of the Białka river channel. The Białka river channel appears to be a complex system with a differentiated structure.Its channel system is a mosaic of different types described by the following sequence: straight-sinuous-braided.It represents an intermediate type that is somewhere between a single- and a multi-threaded channel. Future evolution of the Białka river channel appears to include further degradation and transformation into a poorer channel ecosystem.
email@example.com], Institute of Geography and Spatial Management Jagiellonian University in Kraków Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Institute of Geography and Spatial Management Jagiellonian University in Kraków Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków: Poland
[email@example.com], Jacobs Engineering Marii Konopnickiej 31, 30-302 Kraków: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Department of Water Engineering and Geotechnics University of Agriculture in Kraków Mickiewicza Ave. 21, 31-120 Kraków: Poland
The research reconstructs the development of the alluvial fan of the River Stryi in the Holocene and dates the phases of increased river activity and their correlation with other valleys in the upper Dniester and Vistula river basins. The age of the palaeochannels and the stratigraphy of alluvial fills are based on radiocarbon dating supported by the results of palynological analyses. The oldest (fossil) palaeochannel of the Stryi was dated to the Younger Dryas. The large-radius meander was abandoned at the end of the Boreal Phase during the period of flood intensification at about 8700 BP. The uneven top of the gravels (cut by palaeotroughs of a depth ranging from 2 to 4 m) indicates that during periods of increased discharges (Younger Dryas, end of the BorealPhase, late Atlantic and beginning of the Subboreal) the troughs were cut and filled with channel sands. From the beginning of the Subboreal Phase (5400-5300 BP), aggradation of the valley bottom has been predominant,which is manifested not only by the overbuilding of the floodplain but also by the gradual elevation of the channel. The accumulation of sandy-silty overbank sediments dated to about 8300, 5400 and 2800 BP correlates well with the beginning of humid phases and floods in the upper Vistula and upper Dniester basinsas well as floods recorded in lakes in the northern foreland of the Alps.
email@example.com], Institute of Archaeology University of Rzeszow Moniuszki 10, 35-015 Rzeszów: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Department of Geomorphology Ivan Franko Lviv National University Dorohsenko 41, 79000 Lviv: Ukraine
[†passed away 10 november 2021], Botanical Garden of the Jagiellonian University Kopernika 27, 31-501 Kraków: Poland