Geographia Polonica

Geographia Polonica has been published since 1964; in the years 1964–1998 as a serial publication. Since 1999 – as a journal with two issues per year (Spring and Autumn), and since 2012 there are four issues per year (March, July, October, December). Contributions to the journal on both human and physical geography topics as well as related fields (e.g. urban and regional planning, ecology) should be submitted to the Editor. Papers dealing with Central and Eastern Europe are particularly welcomed.

News

Geographia Polonica appreciated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education

tl_files/igipz/ZPZ/GP/mse.jpgOn 23 December, the Ministry of Science and Higher Education announced a new list of scientific journals, along with the number of points awarded for articles in these journals.  With pleasure and great satisfaction we announce that Geographia Polonica has received the highest score, which is 15 points. It is the highest possible score for a Polish journal outside of the  Philadelphia List, but also the absolute highest possible score for a general geographical periodical. It is worth noting that our magazine has the highest metrics of Polish general geographical periodicals in Scopus database (SJR and IPP).We hope that this is another step to strengthen position of Geographia Polonica also on the international area.

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Geographia Polonica: A window onto the world. An interview with Professor Leszek Antoni Kosiński - IN POLISH

tl_files/gp/kosinski.jpgTo mark the 50th anniversary of Geographia Polonica, we are publishing an interview with Professor Leszek Antoni Kosiński, who was a member of its first editorial team. The interview with Professor Kosiński became an opportunity to talk about the work and successes of Polish geographers on the international stage after the Second World War, and to consider the origins as well as ways of achieving those successes, which are still relevant today. This is a Polish version of the interview. English version is available here.

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Current Issue

Geographia Polonica (2018) vol. 91, iss. 1

Border changes in Central and Eastern Europe

Articles

Border changes in Central and Eastern Europe: An introduction

Vladimir Kolosov, Marek Więckowski

Geographia Polonica (2018) vol. 91, iss. 1, pp. 5-16
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0106

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Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to consider the main border issues and cross-border relationships in Centraland East Europe (CEE) in the context of changing theoretical approaches to border studies. The authors start by analysing the impact of the impressive progress in the theory of borders on studies of CEE. Fundamental political changes in this part of Europe after 1989 were associated with the opening of borders and the intensification of cross-border cooperation, which have radically transformed the functions of boundaries. Emerging cross-border regions became spaces of communication, interaction, innovations and development. The EU enlargement to the east and the inclusion of most CEE countries in the Schengen zone accelerated the processes of re- and de-bordering and the diversification of the functions and regime of borders. The powerful waves of migration to the European Union over recent years have again greatly modified the situation in border areas and provoked the construction of new walls. In conclusion the authors propose eight research questions forfuture studies of borders and bordering in CEE.

Keywords: border studies, border, Central and Eastern Europe, European Union, integration, external border of the European Union, post-Soviet countries, geopolitics

Vladimir Kolosov [vladimirkolossov@gmail.com], Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences Staromonetny pereulok 29, 119017 Moscow: Russia
Marek Więckowski [marekw@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Border politics in Central Europe: Hungary and the role of national scale and nation-building

James Wesley Scott

Geographia Polonica (2018) vol. 91, iss. 1, pp. 17-32
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0101

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Abstract:

This essay focuses attention on aspects of border politics that give evidence of nation-building and national consolidation processes in Central Europe. In a normative, policy-oriented sense this is a question of borders as framing conditions for regional development. In a more critical and analytical sense this involves interrogating the actual use of borders in politically and ideologically framing national interests within a wider Europeancontext. The essay begins with a brief discussion of Europeanisation processes understood in terms of the promotion of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in Central Europe. Here, the significance of national structural conditions for implementation of Cohesion and regional policies and hence CBC will be discussed. One result that emerges is that while EU-European principles of cross-border cooperation have been partly mainstreamed into regional development policies they have at the same time been superimposed by the domestication of EU policies in the interest of nation-building. More specific evidence is then provided by Hungarian experience where national scale and nation-building have played key roles in conditioning the quality of cross-border cooperation and in the framing of state borders as resources. Attention will focus on: (1) Hungarian exploitation of CBC in the service of ethnopolitical development objectives and (2) Hungary’s recent policy of border securitisation which essentially entails a re-nationalisation of its border regime and a framing of the physical border as a protective barrier against threats to national and European identity.

Keywords: Central Europe, Hungary, borders, border politics, national scale, cross-border cooperation

James Wesley Scott [james.scott@uef.fi], Karelian Institute University of Eastern Finland Yliopistokatu 2, FI-80100 Joensuu: Finland; Department of Economic Geography University of Gdańsk Bażyńskiego 4, 80-309 Gdańsk: Poland

An outline of border changes in the area between the Baltic and the Mediterranean: Their geopolitical implications

Jernej Zupančič, Jan A. Wendt, Alexandru Ilieş

Geographia Polonica (2018) vol. 91, iss. 1, pp. 33-46
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0104

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Abstract:

This article deals with changes in political boundaries, border regimes and border policies that have taken place in the area between the Baltic and the Mediterranean, which corresponds in the broadest sense with the term ‘Europe-in-between’. An important generator of problems here has been the multi-ethnic composition of the population, a source of diffuse political processes often even giving rise to conflict. Border policies have served as indicators of the relationships pertaining between countries, though they have an even broader exponent relating EU policies and peacekeeping missions, among other things, and thus offering nothing less than a laboratory for geopolitics both old and new. In the three parts present here, the first represents a short theoretical discussion concerning national systems, while the second offers an empirical analysis of border changes and policies in the area stretching from Kaliningrad to the Bosphorus and Trieste. Finally, a third, synthetic, part discusses recent challenges to border policies in the area in question posed by processes of European integration, as set against the new security paradigms of our era. Particular emphasis is placed on strong immigration pressure, pan-Turkish strategic aspirations, the Balkan area and its policies and the relationship between the EU and Russia.

Keywords: border politics, border changes, Central and Eastern Europe, security, new geopolitics

Jernej Zupančič [jernej.zupancic@ff.uni-lj.si], Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts University of Ljubljana Aškerčeva 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana: Slovenia
Jan A. Wendt [an.wendt@ug.edu.pl], Institute of Geography, Faculty of Oceanography and Geography University of Gdańsk Bażyńskiego 4, 80-309 Gdańsk: Poland
Alexandru Ilieş [ilies@uoradea.ro], Department of Geography, Tourism and Territorial Planning University of Oradea Universitatii st., 410087, Oradea: Romania

Comparing the development of border regions with the use of GIS (the case of Russia)

Vladimir Kolosov, Andrei Medvedev, Maria Zotova

Geographia Polonica (2018) vol. 91, iss. 1, pp. 47-61
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0090

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Abstract:

The objective of the paper is to analyze the trends and the dynamics of socio-economic development in the areas on both sides of all Russia’s land boundaries (more than 22,000 km long) using remote sensing data and GIS applications at different scales. The originality of this research is in the processing of large amounts of data (30 meters resolution images and medium-scale topographic maps) on vast areas and the construction of maps allowing analyzing the data on a new scale. The peripheral character of most border areas is a serious challenge for the development of cross-border cooperation. Depopulation and the depressed state of their economy do not stimulate contacts between neighboring territories. The authors assess the socio-economic situation on both sides of Russian borders and the contrasts between neighboring territories in the mirror of the structure and the dynamics of land use and the density of settlements and roads. The authors come to the conclusion that the border space experiences further fragmentation. The processes on the ‘new’ (post-Soviet) and ‘old’ borders differ by their speed and the character of transformations. Their asynchrony is quickly increasing the asymmetry of cross-border interactions.

Keywords: borders, remote sensing, spatial analysis, mapping, assessment, socio-economic development, Russia

Vladimir Kolosov [vladimirkolossov@gmail.com], Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences Staromonetny pereulok 29, 119017 Moscow: Russia
Andrei Medvedev [a.a.medvedeff@gmail.com], Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences Staromonetny pereulok 29, 119017 Moscow: Russia
Maria Zotova [zotovam@bk.ru], Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences Staromonetny pereulok 29, 119017 Moscow: Russia

A network approach to transborder cooperation studies as exemplified by Poland’s eastern border

Sylwia Dołzbłasz

Geographia Polonica (2018) vol. 91, iss. 1, pp. 63-76
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0091

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Abstract:

The work detailed in this article sought to determine the nature of the transborder cooperation ongoing in Poland’s eastern borderland, focusing in particular on the transborder network. Research encompassed analysis of the scope of cooperation in terms of subject matter and type of beneficiary, as well as analysis of the transborder cooperation network using SNA. All beneficiaries and projects pursued under the Poland-Belarus-Ukraine 2007-2013 Cross-Border Cooperation Programme within the framework of the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument were examined. Cooperation structures in the Polish-Ukrainian-Belarusian borderland area were then compared with those in the Polish-Czech and Polish-Slovak border areas. Results showed that, while the pursuit of common projects contributed to intensified connections in the Polish-Belarusian-Ukrainian borderland area, the transborder cooperation is much influenced by the strong formalisation of the EU’s external border, and by formal-legal regulations in the neighbouring countries. The cooperation network in the eastern borderland of Poland thus differs greatly from those in the south.

Keywords: transborder network, cross-border cooperation, EU external border, Poland-Belarus-Ukraine borderland

Sylwia Dołzbłasz [sylwia.dolzblasz@uwr.edu.pl], University of Wrocław Institute of Geography and Regional Development Kuźnicza 49/55, 50‑138 Wrocław: Poland

Mobility and regionalisation: Changing patterns of air traffic in the Baltic Sea Region in connection to European integration

Jan Henrik Nilsson

Geographia Polonica (2018) vol. 91, iss. 1, pp. 77-93
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0092

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Abstract:

The geo-political transition in 1989-91 had long term consequences for the European integration process.The integration and regionalisation processes following the transition resulted in a transformation of territorial borders in and around the region; the functions of the borders changed. Mobility is vital for these processes.This paper is based on a longitudinal study of the development of air traffic from airports in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea Region, 2000-2012. The purpose of the paper is to discuss how the development of infrastructure and transport networks influence regionalisation processes in the Baltic Sea Region. Firstly, the impact of macro-economic development as a driver of internationalisation in the region is analysed, thereafter therelationship between institutional transition and regional system development. There are three periods of large increase in traffic from the Baltic States towards Western Europe, related to institutional change: rapidly after independence, as a result of the enlargement of the European Union, and related to the emergence of low-costaviation. Aviation from Minsk and Kaliningrad have also shown substantial increase in air traffic, but mainly to other parts of the former Soviet Union. There is thus little evidence of a regionalisation process involving the whole region.

Keywords: Geo-political change, borders, mobility, aviation, the Baltic Sea Region

Jan Henrik Nilsson [jan-henrik.nilsson@ism.lu.se], Department of Service Management and Service Studies Lund University Box 882, 25108 Helsingborg: Sweden

The local border traffic zone experiment as an instrument of cross-border integration: The case of Polish-Russian borderland

Iwona Sagan, Vladimir Kolosov, Dominika Studzińska, Maria Zotova, Alexander Sebentsov, Klaudia Nowicka

Geographia Polonica (2018) vol. 91, iss. 1, pp. 95-112
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0102

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Abstract:

The main objective of this article is to offer an answer to the question whether introducing local border traffic (LBT) on the external frontiers of the EU is an effective tool for cross-border integration and development of marginalised border areas. The analysis was carried out in an area of particular strategic importance for the European Community and Russia, which is the Polish-Russian borderland. The study includes the analysis of political discourse supplied with the findings from the original survey revealing mutual perception of Polish and Russian partners. The authors drew special attention to the significance of delimitation of areas included in the visa-free traffic. The success of the four-year period of LBT zone’s functioning on the Polish-Kaliningrad border came as a result of modification of the regulations concerning the scope of the zone and the inclusionof economic regions otherwise heavily affected by the split in the functional dimension. The analysed region had the chance to become a model of national and local policies’ cooperation in border areas. The decision to shut down the LBT has proved yet again that socio-economic initiatives in border regions are deterministically dependent on the decisions of central governments.

Keywords: local border traffic, cross-border integration, Polish-Russian border, external border of the European Union

Iwona Sagan [geois@univ.gda.pl]
Vladimir Kolosov [vladimirkolossov@gmail.com], Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences Staromonetny pereulok 29, 119017 Moscow: Russia
Dominika Studzińska [geods@univ.gda.pl], Department of Economic Geography, Faculty of Oceanography and Geography University of Gdańsk Bażyńskiego 4, 80-309 Gdańsk: Poland
Maria Zotova [zotovam@bk.ru], Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences Staromonetny pereulok 29, 119017 Moscow: Russia
Alexander Sebentsov [sebentsov@gmail.com], Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences Staromonetny pereulok 29, 119017 Moscow: Russia
Klaudia Nowicka [geokn@univ.gda.pl], University of Gdańsk Bażyńskiego 4, 80-309 Gdańsk: Poland

Comparison of cross-border shopping tourism activities at the Polish and Romanian external borders of European Union

Delia Bar-Kołelis, Jan A. Wendt

Geographia Polonica (2018) vol. 91, iss. 1, pp. 113-125
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0103

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Abstract:

The purpose of the following paper is to debate the cross-border shopping tourism activities taking place at the external borders of the European Union in Poland and Romania. The work focuses on a comparative analyses of three borders from Poland and three borders from Romania. They had a similar history, underwent a period of political and economic transformation and both countries joined the EU in a short space of time. The research is composed from a theoretical and empirical approach. The theoretical research results show similarities in the evolutions of cross-border shopping tourism activities from both countries. The empirical research updates the situation of cross-border shopping tourism activities. The results show a different evolution of this kind of tourism activities, which has been more predominant at the Polish borders than at the Romanian border, mainly motivated by the stronger market differences existing between Poland and its neighbours, than between Romania and its neighbours. The economic motivators are still strong with a focus of customers on better price benefits and discount opportunities. The leisure elements, although not predominant are present, mainly in Poland, the customers being mainly motivated by the pleasure emerged from the shopping activity. In terms of shopping, the dominant role is played by the shopping, in their old forms (bazaar, local market or a transformed department stores) or their new forms (commercial centres or malls), increasingly incorporating also elements of leisure.

Keywords: cross-border shopping, Romania, Poland, border, development, trading, tourism, external border of the European Union

Delia Bar-Kołelis [deliabar@kolelis.com], Institute of Geography, Faculty of Oceanography and Geography University of Gdańsk Bażyńskiego 4, 80-309 Gdańsk: Poland
Jan A. Wendt [an.wendt@ug.edu.pl], Institute of Geography, Faculty of Oceanography and Geography University of Gdańsk Bażyńskiego 4, 80-309 Gdańsk: Poland

Political borders under ecological control in the Polish borderlands

Marek Więckowski

Geographia Polonica (2018) vol. 91, iss. 1, pp. 127-138
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0105

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Abstract:

In Central and Eastern Europe, including Poland, many protected areas are situated in the borderlands. Borders (e.g. between states), boundaries (of protected areas), and frontiers (e.g. an eco-frontier) are produced by humans and underline control and ownership of land (territory). These borderlines overlap with each another – can be visible or not, and function as barriers to the flows and economic activity of human beings, with their juridical consequences. In this paper the focus has been placed on the role of that borders play in the construction of space, especially in relation to attractive natural areas in the borderlands of Poland, whether or not they are protected. Additionally the author proposes and tries to illustrate the role of the ‘periodisation’ of nature protection in the borderlands and the relationship between them.

Keywords: Poland, border, national park, transboundary cooperation, protected area, eco-frontier

Marek Więckowski [marekw@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland