Geographia Polonica

Geographia Polonica has been published since 1964; in the years 1964–1998 as a serial publication. Since 1999 – as a journal with two issues per year (Spring and Autumn), and since 2012 there are four issues per year (March, July, October, December). Contributions to the journal on both human and physical geography topics as well as related fields (e.g. urban and regional planning, ecology) should be submitted to the Editor. Papers dealing with Central and Eastern Europe are particularly welcomed.

News

CALL FOR PAPERS: Borders in Central and Eastern Europe

tl_files/igipz/ZPZ/GP/map.gifThe objective of this coming issue of GEOGRAPHIA POLONICA is to come back over the borders and cross-border relationships, in a context where the traditional representation of borders seen as the ground for categorization and delimitation is now questioned by multiple flows processes, dynamics and changes.

Political and socio-economic changes in Central and Eastern Europe has deeply transformed existence and functioning of borders and borderland areas. General systemic changes in Central Europe help with the use of endogenous potential, which can be modified through an uncovering of new resources and innovations. Increases in traffic: international, cross-border and national, help in the development of new economy that services it, both in “old” border regions and in new emerging cross-border regions. This processes are supported by economic and social changes that help increase the significance of development of borderlands. Given wise policies and investments, these processes become impulses behind the appearance and increase of new cross-border relationships. European Union funding (funds) has been the main component to investments in the borderland areas in many CEE regions. At the same time new crated interactions are becoming a primary focus of transboundary collaboration and integration.

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Geographia Polonica appreciated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education

tl_files/igipz/ZPZ/GP/mse.jpgOn 23 December, the Ministry of Science and Higher Education announced a new list of scientific journals, along with the number of points awarded for articles in these journals.  With pleasure and great satisfaction we announce that Geographia Polonica has received the highest score, which is 15 points. It is the highest possible score for a Polish journal outside of the  Philadelphia List, but also the absolute highest possible score for a general geographical periodical. It is worth noting that our magazine has the highest metrics of Polish general geographical periodicals in Scopus database (SJR and IPP).We hope that this is another step to strengthen position of Geographia Polonica also on the international area.

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Geographia Polonica: A window onto the world. An interview with Professor Leszek Antoni Kosiński - IN POLISH

tl_files/gp/kosinski.jpgTo mark the 50th anniversary of Geographia Polonica, we are publishing an interview with Professor Leszek Antoni Kosiński, who was a member of its first editorial team. The interview with Professor Kosiński became an opportunity to talk about the work and successes of Polish geographers on the international stage after the Second World War, and to consider the origins as well as ways of achieving those successes, which are still relevant today. This is a Polish version of the interview. English version is available here.

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Current Issue

Geographia Polonica (2016) vol. 89, iss. 3

Articles

Critical considerations in Acacia mearnsii eradication: A case from South Africa

Geoffrey Mukwada, Wisemen Chingombe, Phillip Taru

Geographia Polonica (2016) vol. 89, iss. 3, pp. 271-286 | Full text
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0058 http://rcin.org.pl/igipz/Content/59016/WA51_78771_r2016-t89-no3_G-Polonica-Mukwada.pdf

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Abstract:

Despite the huge investment that has been made in attempts to control Acacia mearnsii there is little evidence to show that the spread of this species is receding. In South Africa Acacia mearnsii is regarded as one of the most problematic invasive species in wildlife conservation areas, where it is threatening ecosystem health. This paper examines the distribution of Acacia mearnsii in an area that is adjacent to the Golden Gate Highlands National Park in South Africa. The results of the study indicate that the park is under threat from invasion by the species. This paper recommends the adoption of an integrated approach in which economic, social and environmental assessments are factored into eradication programmes.

Keywords: conservation, eco-agricultural landscapes, ecosystem goods and services, integrated control, invasive alien species, poverty

Geoffrey Mukwada, University of the Free State Department of Geography Private Bag X13, 9866 Phuthaditjhaba: South Africa
Wisemen Chingombe, University of the Free State Department of Geography Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866: South Africa
Phillip Taru, University of the Free State Department of Geography Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866: South Africa

Ancient and recent (post-agricultural) forest communities as indicators of environmental conditions in north-eastern Poland (Masuria and Kurpie region)

Ewa Roo-Zielińska, Jan Marek Matuszkiewicz

Geographia Polonica (2016) vol. 89, iss. 3, pp. 287-309 | Full text
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0063

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Abstract:

The paper analyses three forest types belonging to the following associations: (1) fresh pine forest (Peucedano-Pinetum), (2) mixed pine forest (Querco roboris-Pinetum) and (3) oak-hornbeam forest (Tilio cordatae-Carpinetum betuli). They are located in north-eastern Poland. We compared the indicator value of three sets of data:(1) phytosociological relevés representing ancient forests (each type/association), (2) phytosociological relevés representing the youngest recent forests with the shortest regeneration period (each type/association) and (3) the ‘abstract pattern’ (representing the core of a specific type of plant community with a characteristic combination of species and clearly representing a separate type of ecosystem/association). Three sets of data together with their indicator values/numbers: light intensity (L), soil moisture (F), soil reaction (R), and nitrogensupply (N) according to the Ellenberg scale, constituted the basic material for comparative indicator analysis. The percentage shares of ecological groups of species have been calculated as well as the average indicator values for each of these within a data set. The results obtained show that the ‘abstract pattern’ can be treated as a good measure for the evaluation of ancient forest habitat conditions; it is clearly visible in the mean L and F indicator values of the Peucedano-Pinetum and Querco-Pinetum associations, and also in the N of Peucedano-Pinetum and R of Querco-Pinetum, which are closer to ancient forest than to recent forest. In all cases, we found ecological differences between the ancient and recent forests based on their indicator values. Statistically significant differences of the mean L indicator values between ancient forest and recent forest have been found in three types of forest community.

Keywords: characteristic combination of species, Ellenberg ecological indicator values, ancient and recent forests

Ewa Roo-Zielińska [e.roo@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Jan Marek Matuszkiewicz [jan.mat@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

The role of habitat heterogenity in the relationships between soil properties nad earthworm assembleges: a case study in Pomerania (Northern Poland)

Edyta Regulska, Ewa Kołaczkowska

Geographia Polonica (2016) vol. 89, iss. 3, pp. 311-322 | Full text
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0061

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Abstract:

The vastness of the research on earthworm assemblages in agricultural lands focus on the comparison of agricultural treatments of different intensity. Consequently, spatial complexity of the landscape is less emphasised .Our study addresses this knowledge gap. The field study taken in West Pomeranian Lake District in Poland during four campaigns (spring and autumn) revealed that the mosaic of fields (MF) supported higher earthworm abundance than the similarly managed but homogeneous field (HF). Number and biomass of earthworm individuals both reflect the relationships with electrical conductivity, pH and in some situations also soil organic carbon and soil moisture effectively. We argue that autumn sampling is more preferable for biomonitoring.

Keywords: soil properties, earthworms, landscape structure, biological monitoring

Edyta Regulska [eregulska@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Ewa Kołaczkowska [ekolaczk@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

The use of kettle holes for reconstructing former soil cover in different types of land use

Bogusława Kruczkowska

Geographia Polonica (2016) vol. 89, iss. 3, pp. 323-343 | Full text
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0060

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Abstract:

The aim of the study was to identify and examine main directions of soil patterns, typology, SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) and Nt (Total Nitrogen) content in the topsoil changes that have occurred in kettle holes as an effect of soil erosion and anthropogenic denudation. Varied in the type of land use, three closed basins located in young glacial landscape in north-western Poland were investigated. According to the type of land use, the total area of soils with untransformed or moderately transformed morphology is different. Significant modifications have been taking place not only in mineral soils, which are located on slopes, but especially in soils of the bottom of sedimentary basins. In fact, most of primary soil properties and morphology have been replaced by new characteristics. The most intensive modifications of soil morphology and soil chemical properties occurs within croplands. Total area of colluvial soils can be treated as indicator of soil erosion processes intensity.

Keywords: kettle holes, soil cover evolution, soil redistribution, soil morphology, soil chemical properties

Bogusława Kruczkowska [b.przewozna@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Analysis of land use changes of urban ventilation corridors in Warsaw in 1992-2015

Katarzyna Osińska-Skotak, Joanna Zawalich

Geographia Polonica (2016) vol. 89, iss. 3, pp. 345-358 | Full text
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0057

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Abstract:

One of the most important factors influencing a city’s climate is the ventilation of a given urban unit. The most effective avenue of wind penetration into a built-up area is provided by uninterrupted urban greenery, thoroughfares and railway land radiating from the city centre as well as river valleys cutting through the entire city creating a unified system. These areas are called urban ventilation corridors or urban ventilation wedges. In Warsaw such an air exchange and regeneration system has been under development since the XIX century. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the rate and direction of land use changes in 1992-2015 and indicate the cause of current changes in the development of ventilation corridors in Warsaw. Visual interpretation of SPOT and LANDSAT satellite images and aerial orthophotomaps provided the data source for a database on the state of development of the ventilation corridors in time series. The analysis carried out established that the built-up area mostly spreads at the expense of agricultural land, which can negatively influence the way the parts of ventilation system operate. Moreover, different analyses were conducted in order to discover the cause of the changes, including analysis of the local zoning plans which were in force at the time in question.

Keywords: urban ventilation corridors, Warsaw, land use change, LANDSAT, SPOT

Katarzyna Osińska-Skotak, Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography Department of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Systems pl. Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warsaw: Poland
Joanna Zawalich, Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography Department of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Systems pl. Politechniki 1, 00-661 Warsaw: Poland

Spatio-temporal databases as research tool in historical Geography

Bogumił Szady

Geographia Polonica (2016) vol. 89, iss. 3, pp. 359-370 | Full text
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0059

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Abstract:

The present article discusses difficulties in the practical application of spatio-temporal databases to geographical-historical research. Apart from undeniable assets of introducing database tools to historical studies, research practice implies also quite significant difficulties related to the unreliability, incompleteness or imprecision of historical information. These features, along with the subjectivism of historical inferential methods (their susceptibility to interpretation), should be taken into consideration when creating Historical Geographical Information Systems (HGIS). Thus assembled, historical information becomes easily accessible for secondary interpretation (source scheme). The critical scheme of any database, created jointly by historians, engineering ontologists, and data modelling specialists, should account for both the ‘expediency’ and ‘processuality’ of historical phenomena, as well as the complex nature of spatio-temporal objects (the ongoing dispute between endurantists and perdurantists).

Keywords: historical GIS, spatio-temporal databases, historical geography

Bogumił Szady, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin Institute of History Al. Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin: Poland

The landscape of abandoned villages in the Western Bieszczady: The problem of definition and classification

Jacek Wolski

Geographia Polonica (2016) vol. 89, iss. 3, pp. 371-387 | Full text
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0064

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Abstract:

The Western Bieszczady mountains are an example of a region of Poland whose population suffered extremely heavily from the effects of wartime and post-war migrations linked to political repression. In 1944-1947 andlater in 1951, from more than 100 villages in the region that had existed since the 15th and 16th centuries, approximately 90% of the total number of inhabitants were forcibly relocated – chiefly ethnic Ruthenians(Boykos). The scale in time and space, and the consequences for the landscape, of the natural and socioeconomic processes taking place there over the next 70 years have proved remarkable on even a European scale. The diversity of the former human activity, followed by a combination of abiotic and biotic renaturalisation processes and secondary human pressure, has led to the creation of unique spatial units. The main aim of this article is to address problems relating to the definition and classification of the contemporary landscape of theareas permanently abandoned by human populations in the Western Bieszczady, through the lens of selected conceptual perspectives of other researchers. Deliberations also covered the memory of the subject landscape in the material and information layers (structural and functional continuum, sustainability of spatial units, time in the sense of the historical evolution of landscapes).

Keywords: abandoned rural areas, definition and classification of the landscapes, memory of the landscape, Western Bieszczady mountains, Boykos

Jacek Wolski [j.wolski@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

Contribution of the Department of Geomorphology and Hydrology of Mountains and Uplands IGSO PAS in Kraków to the development of Polish Geomorphology (1953-2012)

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (2016) vol. 89, iss. 3, pp. 389-404 | Full text
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0065

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Abstract:

The Department of Geomorphology and Hydrology of Mountains and Uplands in Kraków was established in November 1953 by Professor Mieczysław Klimaszewski. Its first task was to act as lead partner in detailed geomorphological mapping. Parallel with the mapping efforts, studies developed in two directions: (1) the evolution of relief during the Quaternary, based mainly on studies of sediments carried out in cooperation with other disciplines, where the greatest attention was turned to the role of the Holocene period before and after the Neolithic evolution; (2) present-day geomorphic processes based mainly on the monitoring of the circulation of water and mineral matter by experimental field stations. Joint studies on the palaeoenvironment and present-day processes played an important role in understanding the evolution of relief, in the forecasting of future changes, and in its practical evaluation. The concept of rational land use was developed based on the evaluation of the Carpathian landscape. Furthermore, our interest in the geomorphology of mountain areas pushed us to cooperate with countries carrying out studies in European mountains, to organise the Carpatho-Balcan Geomorphological Commission, and later to send expeditions to Mongolia (1974-1980) and India (since 1983), as well as to organise international commissions and projects related to INQUA and PAGES.

Keywords: geomorphological mapping, evolution of relief, monitoring, field stations, expeditions, mountain areas

Leszek Starkel, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Project Report

The impact of mountain lee waves on the near-surface atmospheric pressure and local air circulation in the foreland of the Polish Tatra Mountains

Jakub Szmyd

Geographia Polonica (2016) vol. 89, iss. 3, pp. 405-409 | Full text

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Keywords:

Jakub Szmyd [j.szmyd@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Hidden cultural heritage in the abandoned landscape - identification and interpretation using airborne LiDAR

Andrzej Affek

Geographia Polonica (2016) vol. 89, iss. 3, pp. 411-414 | Full text

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Keywords:

Andrzej Affek [a.affek@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

Poland on maps

Past Carpathian landscape recorded in the microtopography

Andrzej Affek

Geographia Polonica (2016) vol. 89, iss. 3, pp. 415-424 | Full text
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0062

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Abstract:

The objective of this study was to map traces of the past Carpathian landscape recorded in the microtopography in the chosen study area (25 km2) within the Wiar river basin. The area comprised two deserted villages (Borysławka and Posada Rybotycka) that were abandoned and afforested after forced displacement of Ruthenian highlanders in 1940s. Three groups of complementary research methods were used: remote sensing (airborne laser scanning – ALS as the main data source), analysis of archival sources and field survey. Sky-view factor (SVF) was applied as the main visualisation technique of the LiDAR-derived DTM for mapping purposes.The results demonstrated that there are numerous, well preserved earthworks created before World War II lying under the tree canopy, such as hollow ways, agricultural terraces, remnants of settlements, border mounds etc. They form a unique cultural heritage of former inhabitants that deserves to be protected.

Keywords: abandoned villages, earthworks, LiDAR, Austrian cadastral maps, the Carpathians

Andrzej Affek, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland