Leszek Starkel

Articles

Changes of the Vistula river channel and floodplain in the last 200 years

Adam Łajczak, Joanna Plit, Roman Soja, Leszek Starkel, Justyna Warowna

Geographia Polonica (2006) vol. 79, iss. 2, pp. 65-87 | Full text

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The Vistula River is a typical Central-European river flowing from the mountains acrossbasins and upland belts to the lowlands. The Vistula valley is modelled by a river with a complexhydrological regime. In its upper reaches, floods driven by summer rainfall prevail, while in thelower reaches snowmelt floods are important. Deforestation favoured a natural propensity forriver braiding. In the mid-19th century, the channelization of the upper Vistula (in the Carpathianforeland) and the lower reaches was commenced with, while the middle streach was leftin a natural state, such that the river has in places preserved a braided pattern up to the presentday. The channelization followed by construction of reservoirs caused downcutting and aggradationto occur, such that opposing tendencies were observed in particular reaches of the riverchannel. In addition, flood embankments confined aggradation to the intra-embankment area.Thus, the functioning of the Vistula River system is largely controlled by diverse human activity.Unconstrained flow and river load transport along the whole river length are only partly possibleduring extreme floods. The present-day adjustment tendencies also relate to ongoing changes inland-use in the drainage basin, as well as on global climatic changes.

Keywords: Vistula River, channelization/regulation, present-day changes of floodplain, downcutting, aggradation

Adam Łajczak [alajczak@up.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30 -084 Krakow: Poland
Joanna Plit [plitjo@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Roman Soja [soja@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland
Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

The importance of parallel studies on past and present day environmental change

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 2, pp. 27-34 : wykr | Full text

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The parallel study of past and present-day environmental changes helps in the betterunderstanding of the relations between processes, their effects, and the long-term trends to themas well as in the recognition of the relations between various temporal and spatial scales. Theauthor characterizes two means of deduction: from processes to effects and in the opposite direction.Especially valuable are studies on the last centuries, in which all groups of methods may beused simultaneously.

Keywords: parallel study on past and present, environmental changes, processes, long-term trends

Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Rainfall, runoff and soil erosion in the extremely humid area around Cherrapunji, India

Leszek Starkel, Surendra Singh, Roman Soja, Wojciech Froehlich, Hiambok Syiemlieh, Paweł Prokop

Geographia Polonica (2002) vol. 75, iss. 1, pp. 43-65 | Full text

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The present paper includes a characterization of the environment in the extremely humid Cherrapunji region (with annual rainfalls from 8 000 to 24 000 mm), as well as a description of a new project and preliminary observations on runoff and soil erosion. Due to deforestation, soils are degraded. The investigation is based on existing meteorological records, measurements of rainfall intensity by way of pluviometers, and observations of selected geomorphological and hydrological processes conducted in an experimental catchment. Heavy rains mainly occur during late evening and continue till morning. The runoff follows the heavy rains immediately, even if the soil profiles may absorb 100 mm of rainfall over 3-4 hours. Deeper layers of the soil profile are still satura-ted during the first half of the dry season. During the rainy season, saturated sheet flow also prevails in the valley bottoms. The present-day rate of soil erosion is very low due to heavy overland How continuing for centuries, and the formation of a stony pavement on slope surfaces as well as of river channels cut in resistant rocks with iron crusts. This has been documented by measurement of ,rCs contents in soil profiles.

Keywords: rainstorm, overland flow, soil erosion, Cherrapunji plateau, '7Cs

Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland
Surendra Singh, epartment of Geography, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793014, India
Roman Soja [soja@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland
Wojciech Froehlich, Homerka Laboratory of Fluvial Processes, Institute of Geography, Polish Academy of Sciences, Frycowa, Poland
Hiambok Syiemlieh, department of Geography, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793014, India
Paweł Prokop [pawel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Extreme rainfalls and river floods in Europe during the last millenium

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (2001) vol. 74, iss. 2, pp. 69-79 | Full text

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Information on extreme rains and floods during the last millennium is gathered on the >asis of various records stretching back from modern direct instrumental records to historicil written sources, and also including proxy data based on sediments, organic remains and relef features. Among these extremes it is possible to distinguish heavy downpours, continues rains, rainy seasons, rapid snowmelts and combinations of all of them. On this basis it is in tern possible to describe phases with higher and lower frequencies of extreme rains aid floods in Europe during the last millennium in a regionally-differentiated manner. The phise of the Little Ice Age is well expressed throughout Europe, although its particular events vere never simultaneous. In the final discussion the author connect the causes of these variabiities in space and time with fluctuations in solar radiation and volcanic activity.

Keywords: extreme rains, floods, Europe, last millennium

Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

The place of geography in the studies on the Man and the Earth system

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 13-20 | Full text

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The author discusses the place of geographical sciences in studies of the system "Man and the Earth". Nowadays this system is investigated by various disciplines starting from the earth and biological sciences upto physics, chemistry, economic, social, agricultural and technical sciences.The geographical sciences should try to keep their central position due to their wide perspectives, both spatial (regional) and historical (genetic).

Keywords: Man and Earth, environment, geography, ecosystem studies

Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Miscellany

Polish National Committee of IGBP— Global Change: structure and activities

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62, pp. 105-107 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Meeting of the European National Committees for IGBP — Global Change

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62, pp. 119-122 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Articles

Paleogeography of the periglacial zone in Poland during the maximum advance of the Vistulian Ice Sheet

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 55, pp. 151-164 | Full text

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The paleogeographic reconstruction of the periglacial zone during the maximum extent of the last ice sheet is based on various studies of cryogenic phenomena, loess, slope and fluvial forms and deposits as well as paleobotanical and paleozoological records. These data show a very high climatic gradient in N-S transect as well the increasing continentality towards east and great diversity of geoecosystems.

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Progress in research on the evolution of the geographical environment of Poland

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 5-18 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Zonal and azonal aspects of the agriculture-forest limit in the Polish Carpathians

Bolesław Adamczyk, Tadeusz Gerlach, Barbara Obrębska-Starklowa, Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1980) vol. 43, pp. 71-84 | Full text

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Bolesław Adamczyk, Department of Forest Soils, Agricultural University, Cracow
Tadeusz Gerlach, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow
Barbara Obrębska-Starklowa, Department of Climatology, Jagiellonian University, Cracow
Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

The role of extreme meteorological events in the shaping of mountain relief

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1978) vol. 41, pp. 13-20 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Complex physico-geographical investigations and their importance for economic development of the Flysh Carpathian area

Eugeniusz Gil, Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1977) vol. 34, pp. 47-62 | Full text

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Eugeniusz Gil, Institute of Geography, Polish Academy of Sciences, Research Station at Szymbark
Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Research problems of the First Mongolian-Polish Physical Geographical Expedition to the Khangay Mts. in 1974

Kazimierz Klimek, Radnarin Lomborintchen, Leszek Starkel, Tsesemin Sugar

Geographia Polonica (1976) vol. 33 1, pp. 107-120 | Full text

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Kazimierz Klimek, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Radnarin Lomborintchen, Institute of Geography and Geocryology Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan Bator
Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland
Tsesemin Sugar, Institute of Geography and Geocryology Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan Bator

Planation surfaces in the light of the 1 : 300,000 geomorphological map of Poland

Maria Baumgart-Kotarba, Sylwia Gilewska, Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1976) vol. 33 1, pp. 5-23 | Full text

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Planationsurfaces, being included into the contents of the 1:300,000 Geo-morphological Map of Poland, are surfaces of subaerial destruction which resulted from the joint action of various factors in pre-Pleistocene sensu stricto times. These surfaces cut across rocks of different resistance and vari-ous structures forming the Sudetes Mts., together with the Sudetes Foreland, the Central Polish Uplands and the Carpathians. North of lat. 51°N the down-warped Central Polish Uplands merge gradually beneath the unbroken cover of glacial and glacio-fluvial deposits. In the Polish Lowland, therefore, old sur-faces are now buried by Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits (S. Biernat 1968; E. Ciuk 1961; F. Różycki 1956). Beyond the limit of the last Scandinavian glaciation, young destruction surfaces of exogenic origin also developed on the older glacial and glacio-fluvial deposits (J. Dylik 1953; K. Rotnicki 1966). A discussion of the fossil planation surfaces and Pleistocene surfaces of destruc-tion, however, falls outside the scope of this paper. Its aim is to show the regional differentiation in the development and state of preservation of the pre-Pleistocene planation surfaces in southern Poland in relation to morpho-structure, its general neotectonic tendencies and trends of evolution.Regional analysis is based upon the 1:300,000 Geomorphological Map of Poland which was prepared in the Cracow Branch of the Institute of Geo-graphy, Polish Academy of Siencies, during the period 1966 to 1973, acting in cooperation with specialists in regional geomorphology from Wrocław, Poznań, Warszawa, Lublin, Toruń and Gdańsk. The regional maps described in this paper were prepared by H. Piasecki (the Sudetes Mts. and Sudetes Foreland), S. Gilewska (the Uplands of Silesia and Małopolska), H. Maruszczak (the Lub-lin-Volhynian Upland), K. Klimek and L. Starkel (sub-Carpathian Basins) and L. Starkel (the Carpathians).

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Maria Baumgart-Kotarba, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Św. Jana 22, 31-018 Kraków, Poland
Sylwia Gilewska, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland
Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Thei modelling of monsoon areas of India as related to catastrophic rainfall

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1972) vol. 23, pp. 151-174 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Directions of geomorphological research in the Department of Physical Geography in Cracow

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1972) vol. 22, pp. 53-74 | Full text

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In the autumn of 1953 professor M. Klimaszewski organised a Section ofGeomorphology and Hydrography at the Institute of Geography of the PolishAcademy of Sciences in Cracow. At the beginning, 2-4 geomorphologists wereemployed but later the number rose to eight."Research was concentrated atfirst on studies of the evolution of the relief, based on a method of geomorphologicalmapping. Afterwards research in dynamic geomorphology becameincreasingly more frequent. Two research stations became linked to the department:that at Hala Gąsienicowa in the Tatras, situated at the upper tree-line(1520 m a.s.l.), and from 1966 that in Szymbark in the Flysch Carpathians,situated on the border of the Carpathian Foothills and the Beskidy Mts.(300-740 m a.s.l.). In the autumn of 1968 professor Klimaszewski handed overhis office as head of the Department to the author of this article and in 1970the Department was renamed the Department of Physical Geography.

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

The role of catastrophic rainfall in the shaping of the relief of the Lower Himalaya (Darjeeling Hills)

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1972) vol. 21, pp. 103-147 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Climatic of Tectonic Adaptation of the Relief of Young Montains in the Quaternary

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1969) vol. 17, pp. 209-230 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

The morphogenetic role played by the Holocene in a variety of climatic zones of the world

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1968) vol. 14, pp. 77-86 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Evolution of the relief of the Polish East Carpathians in the Quaternary (with the upper San basin as example)

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1966) vol. 10, pp. 89-114 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

L'évolution du relief des Carpathes Orientales dans le bassin du Haut San

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1966) vol. 9, pp. 53-62 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Chronology of denudation processes in the last glacial period in the Flysch Carpathians

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1964) vol. 2, pp. 61-68 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland