Leon Andrzejewski


Geomorphological evolution of selected mouth sections of the Lower Vistula river tributaries in the Late Glacial and Holocene

Leon Andrzejewski

Geographia Polonica (1986) vol. 52, pp. 19-31 | Full text

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Valleys of the rivers of the Polish Lowland have already been dealt with innumerous geomorphological studies (Lencewicz 1927; Galon 1934, 1953, 1961, 1968;Kozarski 1962; Kozarski and Szupryczyński 1958: Niewiarowski 1968; Wiśniewski1976 and others). However, the above compilations discuss chiefly single valleyforms and are mostly intended to describe their Pleistocene history against theprogressing recession of an ice sheet. A lot of valuable results are available in thisrespect. On the other hand, there are no detailed studies concerning the problemof the Late Glacial and Holocene evolution of valleys understood as river systemscomprising tributaries and their parent river. The present paper is intended to fillin the gap. Its objective is to present interrelationships in the development of threemediumsized tributaries of the Vistula river, i.e. the rivers Zgłowiączka, Mień andTążyna, against the common local baselevel, i.e. the Vistula, that remained changeable,especially in the Late Glacial (Fig. 1). Several-year geomorphological studies carriedout within the above valleys were concerned with the identification of factorscontributing to similarities and differences in the mode of development of thosevalleys, and with the tentative reconstruction of the operation and general natureof fluvial processes on the Vistula.

The above problem presented in outline is undoubtedly a complex one since asyet no complete information has been provided concerning the response of a tributaryto a variety of alterations in the valley of the trunk river. Much controversy isalso caused by general trends in the operation of fluvial processes at the timeinterval between the glacial and interglacial. especially by a question of the beginningof phases of fluvial erosion and deposition (Soergel 1921; Penck 1938; Jahn 1956;Schumm 1965; Galon 1968). The above problem has been tackled in more detailby Kozarski and Rotnicki (1978).

The present author carried out studies of the lower parts of the valleys, i.e. theirportions developed within terraces along the Vistula valley as far as the plateau.The compilation of a detailed geomorphological map at a scale of 1 : 10.000 wasbased on air photos. Structural-textural analysis was made of genetically varyingvalley fills.

This study deals largely with the Zgłowiączka valley where a wider range ofinvestigations were carried out. Besides a detailed geomorphological-sedimentologicalstudy, they included the dating of


Leon Andrzejewski, Nicholas Copernicus University. Toruń, Poland