Barbara Czajka

Articles

The diversity of soils of the upper forest line, transition, and mountain pine zones in the Babia Góra Massif

Paweł Nicia, Paweł Zadrożny, Barbara Czajka

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 2, pp. 139-145 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0020

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Abstract:

The upper forest line transition zone up to the mountain pine zone on the southern slopes of Babia Góra, has diversified phytosociology and soils. The development and diversity of the upper forest soils are affected by morphogenetic processes, physiographic conditions, vegetation, and anthropogenic factors which in the past included sheep grazing. An analysis conducted on the morphological and chemical soil properties in the transects covering the upper forest line, transition, and mountain pine zone on the southern slopes of Babia Góra revealed considerable diversification characterising these soils within the individual altitude zones. A substantial changeability in the contents of the analysed components in the investigated soils is characteristic for mountain soils developed in the areas with great intensity of slope phenomena and processes.

Keywords: Babia Góra Mt, soils, upper forest line

Paweł Nicia, Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection University of Agriculture in Krakow Mickiewicza 21, 31 -120 Krakow: Poland
Paweł Zadrożny, Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection University of Agriculture in Krakow Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Krakow: Poland
Barbara Czajka, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland

The influence of snow avalanches on the timberline in the Babia Góra Massif, Western Carpathians

Barbara Czajka, Adam Łajczak, Ryszard J. Kaczka

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 2, pp. 147-161 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0021

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Abstract:

Avalanches are one of the most important abiotic factors influencing the timberline on a worldwide scale. In the case of Babia Góra, avalanches are found to affect more than ¹⁄³ of the length of the timberline, locally lowering it by as much as 350 m in distance. The timberline under the influence of avalanche processes is associated with steep slopes (>30°), with 90% of this being located on the massif’s northern slope. In the long run (1964-2009), around the whole massif the timberline shows a high degree of stability along 79% of its length. It proved possible to reconstruct avalanche events along the largest avalanche path in the examined massif, the Szeroki Żleb gully. Nine such events are seen to have occurred over the past 120 years, with seven of these characterising the last 50 years. The avalanche(s) occurring in winter 1975/1976 had the greatest impact on the timberline in the Szeroki Żleb gully over the examined period.

Keywords: timberline, snow avalanche, Babia Góra Mountain, Norway spruce, image interpretation, dendrogeomorphology

Barbara Czajka, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Adam Łajczak [alajczak@up.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30 -084 Krakow: Poland
Ryszard J. Kaczka [ryszard.kaczka@us.edu.pl], Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland

The tree-ring growth responses to climate in the timberline ecotone of Babia Góra Mountain

Ryszard J. Kaczka, Barbara Czajka, Adam Łajczak

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 2, pp. 163-176 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0022

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Abstract:

The growth/climate response of Norway spruce in the timberline ecotone of Babia Góra Mountain was examined. Based on a pool of 708 trees from 10 sites, the influence of age, exposure, and method of computing chronology, was assessed. Gridded data and 12 instrumental series were used to study the spatiotemporal relationship of the tree growth and climate. Temperature mainly controls the growth of the Norway spruce in the timberline ecotone at Babia Góra Mountain. The most important factors were the June and July temperatures (r = 0.57) and of the entire growing season April-September (r = 0.52). The precipitation of late winter (March and correspondingly the January-March season) had a positive influence on the tree growth. The previously reported negative correlation with the summer precipitation was found but it was less important. The mature trees growing on the northern slope showed a response to the summer temperature in a stronger manner than all the other groups. The low-frequency SPL chronologies (detrended using the cubic smoothing splines method) performed better than the RCS (regional curve standardisation) of the high-frequency SPL. A strong correlation was found with Obidowa, the nearest located instrumental data (a distance of 35 km), and the Hala Gąsienicowa, the station located at a similar elevation a.s.l. (1508 m a.s.l.), but also with the Krakow located farther away and at a lower elevation (237 m a.s.l.). The TRW/temperature correlation was temporally most stable in the case of Zakopane.

Keywords: Babia Góra, Carpathians, climate, dendrochronology, Norway spruce, tree-rings

Ryszard J. Kaczka [ryszard.kaczka@us.edu.pl], Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Barbara Czajka, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Adam Łajczak [alajczak@up.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30 -084 Krakow: Poland

The timberline as result of the interactions among forest, abiotic environment and human activity in the Babia Góra Mt., Western Carpathians

Ryszard J. Kaczka, Barbara Czajka, Adam Łajczak, Jerzy Szwagrzyk, Paweł Nicia

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 2, pp. 177-191 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0023

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Abstract:

The character and main natural and anthropogenic factors driving the timberline on the Babia Góra Mt. was discussed. The model of Holtmeier (2009) was modified to describe the functioning of the local timberline. Originating in a geological structure, the asymmetric shape of the ridge of the Babia Góra Mt. created consequences for most of the components of the environment of the timberline. This main stationary factor influence all the others including the differences of local climate, soil development and human activity. The long history of direct impact of land use, grazing and logging and recent indirect influences (air pollution and climate warming) control the present character of the timberline.

Keywords: timberline, Carpathians, the Babia Góra Mt., grazing, spatial and temporal dynamics of timberline

Ryszard J. Kaczka [ryszard.kaczka@us.edu.pl], Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Barbara Czajka, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Adam Łajczak [alajczak@up.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30 -084 Krakow: Poland
Jerzy Szwagrzyk, Institute of Forest Ecology and Silviculture University of Agriculture in Krakow Al. 29 listopada 46, 31-425 Krakow: Poland
Paweł Nicia, Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection University of Agriculture in Krakow Mickiewicza 21, 31 -120 Krakow: Poland

Varia

The timberline in the Azau Valley in the central Caucasus Mountains in the context of landforms and the geomorphological processes modelling the area

Adam Łajczak, Barbara Czajka

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 2, pp. 201-203 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0024

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Abstract:

This brief study depicts the Azau Valley in the central Caucasus Mountains in the context of landforms and the geomorphological processes modelling the area. The attached Plate shows the location of timberline and the distribution and extent of landforms of different origin.

Keywords: the Azau Valley, central Caucasus Mountains, timberline, digital map

Adam Łajczak [alajczak@up.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30 -084 Krakow: Poland
Barbara Czajka, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland

Articles

Geographical characteristics of the timberline in the Carpathians

Barbara Czajka, Adam Łajczak, Ryszard J. Kaczka

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 2, pp. 35-54 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0014

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Abstract:

The pattern of timberline distribution on mountain ranges world-wide is related to global factors. The basic factor is temperature and the amount of radiation, which falls with increasing distance from the equator. Additionally, this basic relationship is overlaid by the specific features of the type of climate on the massif (degree of continentality or oceanity) and the mass-elevation effect. In the Carpathians, the mass elevation effect seems to have bigger impact on the location of timberline (R2 = 0.71, p = 0.00) than their latitudinal location (R2 = 0.56, p = 0.00). The timberline altitude changes by 70 m a.s.l. (±20 m) with each degree of latitude. The influence of the type of the climate is complex and it is not clearly visible due to past and recent human impact.

Keywords: timberline, global factors, latitude influence, mass-elevation effect, the Carpathians

Barbara Czajka, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Adam Łajczak [alajczak@up.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30 -084 Krakow: Poland
Ryszard J. Kaczka [ryszard.kaczka@us.edu.pl], Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland

Timberline in the Carpathians: An overview

Barbara Czajka, Adam Łajczak, Ryszard J. Kaczka, Paweł Nicia

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 2, pp. 7-34 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0013

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Abstract:

In nature, division lines are delineated where multiple important environmental features change. These division lines may be singled out at the intersection of two geosystems (Balon 2000) where the functional uniformity of the geosystems located on both sides are preserved (Forman & Gordon 1986; Cadenasso et al. 2003). A significant environmental boundary is the upper forest boundary (timberline), which separates different vegetation zones: (1) forest from non-forest (Piękoś-Mirkowa & Mirek 1996); climatic zones (2) cool from verycool (Hess 1965); geoecological zones (3) periglacial from temperate forest system (Kotarba 1996). A timberline is a sensitive ecosystem therefore is a good indicator of changes occurring in the environment. There are, however, multiple elements which affect the timberline. This ecotone has also been widely analysed in local, regional, and even monographic studies of numerous massifs. It is necessary to present and organise the great amount of information in order to aid research on the timberline in the Carpathians.

Keywords: boundaries in the mountain environment, timberline, Carpathians

Barbara Czajka, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Adam Łajczak [alajczak@up.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30 -084 Krakow: Poland
Ryszard J. Kaczka [ryszard.kaczka@us.edu.pl], Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Paweł Nicia, Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection University of Agriculture in Krakow Mickiewicza 21, 31 -120 Krakow: Poland

The recent timberline changes in the Tatra Mountains: A case study of the Mengusovská Valley (Slovakia) and the Rybi Potok Valley (Poland)

Ryszard J. Kaczka, Michał Lempa, Barbara Czajka, Karolina Janecka, Zofia Rączkowska, Juraj Hreško, Gabriel Bugár

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 2, pp. 71-83 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0016

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Abstract:

A comparison was done of the timberline course from the mid-20th and beginning of 21st century, in Mengusovská Valley (Slovakia) and Rybi Potok Valley (Poland). These are two valleys in the High Tatra Mts. Aerial photo sand satellite images were used to assess the changes of the timberline in the two valleys. The course of the timberline ecotone in both valleys is similar. In both valleys, the stable timberline section is almost half of the total timberline length. In both valleys there has been an increase in the elevation of the timberline (on average by 10 m in the Mengusovská Valley and 15 m in the Rybi Potok Valley), and free spaces have been increasingly closing up. The progressive changes of the timberline are mainly due to the limit placed on human economic activity, and to climate warming. Inactive avalanche paths have led to an enlargement of the forest area in both valleys. The reduction of avalanche activity is the direct result of climate warming in the Tatra Mts. and from the decrease in the amount of snow in winters.

Keywords: snow avalanches, Carpathians, Tatra Mountains, photointerpretation, reafforestation, timberline ecotone

Ryszard J. Kaczka [ryszard.kaczka@us.edu.pl], Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Michał Lempa, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Barbara Czajka, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Karolina Janecka, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Zofia Rączkowska [raczk@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland
Juraj Hreško, Department of Ecology and Environmentalistics Faculty of Natural Sciences Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra
Gabriel Bugár, Department of Ecology and Environmentalistics Faculty of Natural Sciences Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra

The dynamics of the timberline ecotone on the asymmetric ridge of the Babia Góra Massif, Western Carpathians

Barbara Czajka, Adam Łajczak, Ryszard J. Kaczka

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 2, pp. 85-102 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0017

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Abstract:

Timberline ecotone (TE) generally developed because the temperatures in the environment were too low. There are other overlapping biotic and abiotic factors which affect the TE. The main aim of this work was to determine how the asymmetry of Babia Góra’s ridge influences the location and characteristics of the timberline ecotone nowadays, and how the ridge influenced the timberline ecotone in the mid-20th century. The asymmetry of environmental conditions means the timberline has formed in two extreme environments: on the sunny and gentle southern slope (40% of the timberline length) and on the cold, humid, steep northern slope (another 40% of the timberline length). The southern slope of the ridge shows a progressive timberline length of 86%. In turn, 81% of the timberline on the northern slope is in a stable ecotone.

Keywords: Babia Góra Mt., geomorphometry, ridge asymmetry, timberline shift

Barbara Czajka, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Adam Łajczak [alajczak@up.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30 -084 Krakow: Poland
Ryszard J. Kaczka [ryszard.kaczka@us.edu.pl], Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland