Ryszard Glazik

Articles

Dynamics of shallow groundwater temperature in the Vistula abandoned valley, the Płock Basin

Ryszard Glazik

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 115-128 | Full text

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Abstract:

The temperature of shallow groundwater is markedly affected by air temperature,the height of water table and its changes throughout the year, thermal conductivity andground moisture in the zone of aeration, slope exposure and terrain cover, i.e. land usepatterns and built-up areas. Thus, the problem is complex but little attention has beendevoted to it in the hydrological study.The textbooks of hydrogeology contain the basic information concerning factorswhich affect groundwater temperature and the depth of diurnal, seasonal and annualtemperature fluctaution zones (Marchacz 1960; Pazdro 1964). These problems alsodominate the latest textbook of groundwater hydrology (Kriz 1983). The problems ofgroundwater temperature dynamics fall outside their scope.Few detailed studies on the thermal properties of shallow groundwater areconcerned with selected aspects of the problem. An example concerns a fewcharacteristic wells where Mikulski (1963) pointed out the dependence of groundwatertemperature on the thickness and geological structure of the zone of aeration.Skibniewska (1963, 1964), Nawrocka and Sadowska (1964) dealt with groundwatertemperature fluctuations at different depths in relation to air temperature in Poland'sterritory. Dynowski (1968) has established that groundwater temperature depends onthermal conductivity of the water-bearing and overlying rocks. Relationships betweenair temperature and water temperature in two wells differing in geological structurewere considered by Gutry-Korycka (1969). She suggests that shallow groundwatertemperature dynamics is largely dependent on air temperature, thermal conductivity ofthe ground in the zone of aeration, annual fluctuations of depths to water andgroundwater character, i.e. chemical composition.Publications pertinent to the influence of slope exposure and land use patterns, i.e.terrain cover, on groundwater temperature have been lacking so far in the Polishscientific literature. One of the objectives of the present study is to assess the significanceof these factators.

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Ryszard Glazik, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Toruri, Poland

Influence of dam reservoirs on changes of water conditions in the Lower Vistula -valley

Ryszard Glazik

Geographia Polonica (1984) vol. 50, pp. 283-296 | Full text

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Abstract:

Building of river cascade results in significant changes in the geographic environment.Hydrological conditions and the course of river channel processes and on by--reservoir areas also water, microclimatic, pedologie and vegetation conditions undergotransformation. The degree of human interference into environment depends, firstof all, on technical parameters of cascades, local geomorphological, hydrologicaland pedological conditions and on applied methods of counteracting negativeconsequences of the river impoundment.

The interest in the river cascade influence on environment arose in Poland onlyin 1950s. Cascades constructed, first of all. in mountain and submontane regionsand few objects of such type on lowland rivers, were comprised with the respectiveinvestigations. One of these objects is the Włocławek dam on the Vistula givenover to operation in 1970, which constitutes the first link of the planned LowerVistula cascade.

Two variants of the hydrotechnical structure on the Lower Vistula are discussedin the paper. Results of many-year investigations on the Włocławek dam influenceon environment, and particularly on hydrological conditions of the river and ofadjoining areas, are presented. An attempt to determine changes in water conditionsof the Lower Vistula valley after completion of building of the cascade was undertaken.

Keywords:

Ryszard Glazik, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Toruri, Poland