Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62

Global Change : Polish Perspectives

Articles

Natural and anthropogenic fluctuations and trends of climate change in Southern Poland

Zdzisław Bednarz, Tadeusz Niedźwiedź, Barbara Obrębska-Starklowa, Zygmunt Olecki, Janina Trepińska

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62, pp. 7-22 | Full text

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Abstract:

Climatic changes in Southern Poland, including the Carpathian Mountains are shown in regional and local scale. There are discussed: changeability of the circulation indices during the winter season and fluctuations of the air temperatures based on the instrumental observations in the mountain stations. The influence of climate is referred to the secular changes in the width of tree rings in Tatra Mountains and the thermal feelings of human body. Local changes of the radiation inflows are characteristic features of developing urbanization.

Keywords: climate change, circulation indices, air temperature, sunshine duration, precipitation, long-term instrumental observations, Carpathian Mountains, dendroclimatologi-cal data, thermal sensibility of human body, transparence of atmosphere

Zdzisław Bednarz, Agricultural University in Cracow
Tadeusz Niedźwiedź, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia Będzińska 60,41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland. Institute of Meteorology and Water Management Borowego 14, 30-215 Kraków, Poland.
Barbara Obrębska-Starklowa, Department of Climatology, Jagiellonian University, Cracow
Zygmunt Olecki, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Instytut Geografii, ul. Grodzka 64, 21-044 Kraków
Janina Trepińska, Institute of Geography, Jagellonian University ul. Grodzka 64, 31-044 Kraków, Poland

Generation of time series of the meteorological values in changing climatic conditions

Małgorzata Gutry-Korycka, Piotr Werner, Bogumił Jakubiak

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62, pp. 23-47 | Full text

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Abstract:

The authors discuss the average air temperature and mean precipitation amounts in long-term and short — time variability. This research may be a starting point for combining GCM's models (GFDL and GISS) used to forecast spatial distribution of climatic changes in hydrological models on the territory of Poland.Methods of grid simulation using 90-year and 30-year sequences provide sufficient statistical material for a relatively precise estimation. Authors presented stochastic generation of meteorological data in others time step (daily, monthly and yearly) by Markov chain.

Keywords: scenarios of global climate change; GCM models application (GFDL, GISS); generation of meteorological data (air temperature, precipitation); Markov chains application

Małgorzata Gutry-Korycka, Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, University of Warsaw Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warszawa, Poland
Bogumił Jakubiak, Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, Warsaw University Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland

Measurements of concentration of the trace gases active in the greenhouse effect

Jan Lasa, Bogdan Drozdowicz, Ireneusz Śliwka

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62, pp. 51-60 | Full text

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In the paper the gas chromatograph for the tropospheric measurements of the trace gases active in the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer destruction are described. For the measurements of the CO, CH4 and C02 an automatic gas chromatograph was constructed. For the CFCs monitoring the gas chromatographic system realizing the enrichment procedure of the air sample is presented. The construction and the operation of the photocmission electron capture type detector is described. This detector was developed for the stratospheric measurements of the CFCs "in situ".

Keywords: greenhouse effect, measurements of trace gases in the stratosphere

Jan Lasa, The Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow
Bogdan Drozdowicz, The Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow
Ireneusz Śliwka, The Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, The University of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow

Evolution of isotopic composition and concentration of atmospheric CO2 as a result of anthropogenic influences

Taduesz Kuc, Mirosław Zimnoch

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62, pp. 61-72 | Full text

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Abstract:

Systematic investigations of the isotopic composition in atmospheric C02 and its concentration in Cracow urban area have been carried on at the Environmental Physics De-partment, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Tbchniques. Continuous sampling at biweekly intervals was supplemented by series of samples representing four-hour periods. Comparison with the similar researches from the other world reference stations enabled estimation of the anthropogenic changes in one of the most degraded region of Poland. Besides this our observations indicate that world isotopic trends noticed by "clean" stations are also registered in Cracow. Concentration of the atmospheric C02 in Cracow along the last ten years is almost constant reaching very high value: 372.5 ppmv if compared with the station at Mauna Loa, Hawaii (ca. 345 ppmv), and does not indicate the remarkable increasing tendency. One can explain this situation by constant level or even decrease in total volume of the burned fossil fuels in Poland, and neighbouring countries.

Keywords: fossil fuels, radiocarbon, CO2 concentration, stable isotopes

Taduesz Kuc, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Tbchniques University of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow
Mirosław Zimnoch, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques The Academy of Mining and Metallurgy Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland

Measurement of atmospheric radioactivity in Cracow

Taduesz Florkowski, Jerzy Grabczak, Kazimierz Różański

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62, pp. 73-80 | Full text

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Abstract:

Radioactivity of several components of atmosphere in Cracow is measured continuously or periodicaly in the framework of international cooperation. The paper describes some results of measurement of tritium, 222Rn, 85Kr and others.

Keywords: atmosphere, radioactive components, measurement, tritium, 222Rn, 85Kr

Taduesz Florkowski, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Tbchniques University of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow
Jerzy Grabczak, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Tbchniques University of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow
Kazimierz Różański, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Tbchniques University of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow

Polish Baltic coast: changes, hazards and management

Ryszard B. Zeidler

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62, pp. 81-98 | Full text

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Abstract:

It is widely taken for granted that the climate is changing worldwide, partly on account of anthropogenic eiTects. The impact on Polish coast of the accelerated sea level rise (ASLR) due to the intensifying greenhouse effect has been tackled under IPCC auspices (Zeidler 1992). Regional climate change for the Baltic Sea is discussed first, with particular emphasis on recent findings for sea level (mean and extrema) and storm intensity. Examination of trends and statistical distributions for sea level datasets, revised and updated for the Polish coast, has partly confirmed some earlier conclusions drawn for mean sea level showing a trend about 20 cm per 100 years. For the maximum sea levels the rising trend is about two times smaller. More thought is being given to the general problem of land (primarily arable) degradation due to extended landward penetration of sea water due to ASLR. Long-term coastline change is analysed on the basis of routine topographic and bathymetric data collected at the PAS Institute of Hydro-Engineering IBW PAN Coastal Research Station, situated some 75 km from Gdansk. Following that analysis, we are postulating a large-scale model basing on conservation laws for sediment volume, the shore profile equilibrium (the Dean profile), dispersion terms between coastal cells, and linkage between wave energy dissipation and shore transformation. Assessment of coast vulnerability to ASLR (Zeidler 1992) has been summarized to identify the potential hazards. The Polish "Study Area" under IPCC 'Common Methodology* has been defined as the area within which the physical eiTects of the accelerated sea level rise (ASLR) over the next century could be felt. The inland boundaiy of the study area was chosen as the + 2.5 mm contour. In summary, the area endangered under ASLR1 and ASLR2 is very substantial — 2230 km2 both flooded permanently and at risk (flooded periodically). The area losses under ASLR 1 and ASLR2 are respectively 672 and 948 km2. The length of roads Hooded is 400 km and 564 km in the two cases, in addition to 35 and 126 km of railways, 300 and 415 km of primary power lines, and 26 bridges. The population to be evacuated in advance amounts to 142,690 (urban) and 92,150 (rural), thus 234,840 in total. Various protection techniques are proposed to avoid loss of land. Flood protection in the Lower Vistula River has been described in a comprehensive monograph published by IBW PAN (Makowski 1993).

Keywords: climate change; sea level rise; shore protection; coastal management; Poland's coast vulnerability to sea level rise

Ryszard B. Zeidler, Institute of Hydro-Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk

Biochemical studies in the Ratanica forest catchment (Wieliczka Foothills, S Poland)

Krystyna Grodzińska

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62, pp. 99-104 | Full text

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Biogeochemical and bioindication studies in the beech-pine forest catchment exposed to the moderate, but chronic industrial emissions in southern Poland were described. Balance of nutrients and pollutants was calculated, forest damage using plant indicators was estimated. All data show that the forest in the Ratanica catchment is deteriorated.

Keywords: nutrient and polutant cycling, forest catchment, air pollution, forest health moni-toring, bioindicators

Krystyna Grodzińska, Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow

Miscellany

Polish National Committee of IGBP— Global Change: structure and activities

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62, pp. 105-107 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Chronicle of PNC-IGBP

Małgorzata Gutry-Korycka, Krzysztof Kożuchowski, Krzysztof Korzeniowski, Czesław Druet

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62, pp. 109-118 | Full text

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Małgorzata Gutry-Korycka, Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies, University of Warsaw Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warszawa, Poland
Krzysztof Kożuchowski [kkozuchowski1@wp.pl], Department of Environment Dynamics and Bioclimatology, University of Łódź, Lipowa 81, 90-568 Łódź, Poland

Meeting of the European National Committees for IGBP — Global Change

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 62, pp. 119-122 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland