Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 1

Articles

The Curzon line as the eastern boundary of Poland. The origins and the political background

Piotr Eberhardt

Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 1, pp. 5-12 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2012.1.1

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Abstract:

The paper presents the political history of the present-day eastern boundary of Poland (Polish-Ukrainian and Polish-Belarusian). Therespective line was called the Curzon Line due to the initiative of the Foreign Secretary of Great Britain, George Nathaniel Curzon(1859-1925). On December 8th, 1919, he suggested a provisional demarcation line separating Poland from Bolshevik Russia.At that time, it was just one of many proposals for the course of the line of separation and did not play any significant political role. Thename, the Curzon Line, was brought back into use during World War II by Stalin and accepted by Roosevelt and Churchill at the conferencesin Teheran in 1943 and in Yalta in 1945, as the eastern boundary of Poland. In this article, the causes and consequences of thisdecision are considered, based on the source documents and the literature on the subject. The political boundary which was forced uponPoland by the three superpowers after the defeat of the German Third Reich, and the inclusion of Poland in the Soviet zone of influenceare the subjects of this article.

Keywords: Curzon Line, boundary of Poland, political boundary, World War II, historical geography

Piotr Eberhardt [p.ebe@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

Inner Divisions Of The Czech Republic

Tadeusz Siwek

Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 1, pp. 23-31 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2012.1.2

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Abstract:

The article presents the most significant territorial divisions of the contemporary Czech Republic with respect to the Czechs’ subjectiveperception of them, as well as in comparison with the divisions found in Poland. The author focuses on the differences in the perceptionof the following territorial dichotomies: the capital – the peripheries, the city and town – the village, the borderland previously inhabitedby Germans (commonly referred to as the Sudetes Region and known even more widely as Sudetenland) – the interior of the state, andthe perception of the cultural, historical, religious and administrative regions. All of the issues discussed are documented by statisticaldata and the author’s own research, as well as observations made by the author who has lived in the country since his birth.

Keywords: territorial division, perception, mental maps, cultural regions, administrative regions, Czech Republic

Tadeusz Siwek, University of Ostrava Faculty of Science, Department of Human Geography and Regional Development Dvořákova 7, 701 03 Ostrava: Czech Republic

Polish Economic Migrants In Ireland, 2004-2007

Roman Matykowski, Alicja Andrzejewska

Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 1, pp. 33-43 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2012.1.3

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Abstract:

On the accession of Poland (and nine other states) to the European Union on 1 May 2004, three countries decided to open fully their labourmarkets to Poles (United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden). Even before that date, Poles emigrated to various European countries in searchof seasonal work, especially in agriculture (e.g. collecting fruits and vegetables), either relying on their German passports (e.g. residentsof Silesia) or working illegally. There were several factors that made the labour market of the British Isles particularly popular with Poles,including their knowledge (even if, for some, it was relatively poor) of English, especially among the young (in the 1990s it became thebasic and dominant foreign language taught at Polish schools), and the relatively high earnings. This is why research was conducted onPolish economic migration to the Republic of Ireland in the initial stage of the opening of its labour market, i.e. in the years 2004-2007.The potential difference model was employed to delimit the leading areas attracting Polish migrants to Ireland. The Polish migrant ischaracterised on the basis of the survey research that has been conducted, and the various manifestations of the socio-cultural life ofPoles in Ireland are identified. An analysis is also made of the facilities catering to Polish migrants in the urban space of Cork, one ofthe major clusters of Poles outside the Irish capital.

Keywords: economic emigration, potential difference model, Ireland, Little Poland

Roman Matykowski, Adam Mickiewicz University Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań: Poland
Alicja Andrzejewska, Adam Mickiewicz University Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań: Poland

The importance and diffusion of knowledge in the agricultural sector

Zbigniew Floriańczyk, Krzysztof Janc, Konrad Czapiewski

Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 1, pp. 45-56 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2012.1.4

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Abstract:

The main aim of the work described here was to investigate knowledge transfer to farms, as well as to analyse the levels of knowledgepresent as this relates to farm performance. Possible inefficiency of knowledge utilisation was investigated at the levels of the individualfarm, the gmina (commune – unit of local government administration in Poland) and the region. It emerged from this that theperformance of farms was closely related to level of knowledge, with results offering a basis for the elaboration of different models forknowledge transfer in agriculture. Specifically, the three models distinguished in relation to the path of information flow are peer to peer,global information or direct from supplier.

Keywords: knowledge transfer, human capital, rural policy, rural areas, rural development, agricultural production, Poland

Zbigniew Floriańczyk, Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics Świętokrzyska 20, 00-002 Warsaw: Poland
Krzysztof Janc, Institute of Geography and Regional Development University of Wrocław Kuźnicza 49/55, 50-138 Wrocław: Poland
Konrad Czapiewski [konrad@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

Spatial Classification Of Rural Areas In Poland

Robert Buciak, Marek Pieniążek

Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 1, pp. 57-66 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2012.1.5

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Abstract:

Today, the functions of rural areas are changing; having been mainly agricultural and forested they are increasingly becoming touristicand residential, especially those that are situated in suburban and coastal regions. Spatial typologies are commonly developed on populationdensity which we found could be substituted by land use. The elaboration demonstrates the procedure which led us to a spatialclassification of all the local administrative units in Poland (gmina – NUTS5). As a result 7 classes were distinguished. The goal is to createa standard of division based on universal, readable and easily interpretable indicators which will make the results more intelligible.

Keywords: rural areas, spatial classification, spatial typology, land use, Poland

Marek Pieniążek, Central Statistical Office Al. Niepodległości 208 00-925 Warsaw: Poland

The spatial deconcentration of housing resources in Warsaw in the years 1945-2008

Marcin Stępniak

Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 1, pp. 67-80 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2012.1.6

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Abstract:

Crucial aspects of geographical research are the characterisation of the evolution of distributions as a phenomenon in urban space, aswell as the search for interpretations of observed changes. This article presents a new approach to deconcentration studies concerningthe local conditions underpinning this global process. Locally-based changes in the spatial distribution of housing resources have beenanalysed using the Gini Index and an original modification to the Partial Synthetic Contribution Index. The conducted analysis providedan explicitly geographical framework around which to model spatial diversity of the deconcentration process, and allowed for the elaborationof an original typology for different parts of Warsaw from the urban-planning point of view.

Keywords: internal city structure, housing, city life-cycles, deconcentration, typology of urban areas, Gini Index, Warsaw

Marcin Stępniak [stepniak@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00‑818 Warsaw: Poland