Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 4
Quarries In Landscape And Geotourism
Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 4, pp. 5-12 | Full text
In Poland there are about 590 actively quarried deposits of mineral resources referred to as natural building stone, orquarry stone (database Midas). According to data from the Polish Geological Institute 730 medium and large quarriesare located throughout the country. Most of the quarries work sandstone, limestone, granite, basalt or dolomite. The largestPolish sites exceed 1 km2 in area, while those in other countries can be larger than 10 km2. Once its mineral workingoperations cease, a quarry begins functioning in harmony with the landscape as a former mineral working site. That iswhen the biotic and abiotic elements arrive at a state of equilibrium. The scenic function of a quarry should be interpretedas a set of elements, composed of escarpments, cliffs, spoil heaps, the stage of exploitation, etc. The paper discusses theimpact of quarries on the landscape and their potential value for geotourism.
Keywords: landscape, quarry, visualisation, geotourism, Poland
, University of Silesia Faculty of Earth Sciences Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Changes In The Rural Landscape Of The Polish Sudety Mountains In The Post-War Period
Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 4, pp. 13-21 | Full text
In the post-war period, the area of the Sudety Mountains (also known in English as the Sudetic Mountains or the Sudetes)has been subject to two main trends regarding the transformation of the landscape in rural areas. In a first phase – intensifyingabove all in the period from the 1950s through to the 1970s – it was possible to observe an abrupt depopulationprocess, most especially affecting the areas at higher elevations. The result of this was the disappearance of manyvillages, or else marked decreases in numbers of both inhabitants and buildings. Knock-on effects from that included theonset of secondary succession on abandoned fields, with the result that new areas of forest have emerged in many partsof the contemporary landscape that were once cultivated fields or pastureland.Equally, from the end of the 1990s, a new trend as regards the management of rural areas in the Sudetes began tomake itself apparent. This entailed an intensive development of single-family building construction, including in the formof summer homes. This development has unfortunately been chaotic in many areas, making no reference to the spatialstructure originating in villages established far earlier; the result being disruption of the spatial order. At the same time,there has been no return to villages’ former functions, and nor is it possible to observe any increase in the area put touse as farmland. Nevertheless, it is true to say that many areas of what had been waste ground undergoing secondarysuccession have now been brought back under management, not least in connection with the implementation of jointagricultural and environmental programmes of the European Union.Various actions are today underway with a view to the typical cultural landscape of the Sudety Mountains (including theJelenia Góra Basin) being reinstated and protected, with the rural aspect to the mountain landscape being promoted asan attribute favourable to further regional development (inter alia of the Kłodzko region).
Keywords: cultural landscape, rural landscape, land-use changes, upgrading and protection of the landscape, Sudety Mountains
, University of Wrocław Faculty of Earth Science and Environmental Management pl. Uniwersytecki 1, 50-137 Wrocław: Poland
18th-20th Century Flood-Induced Changes In The Landscapes Of The Mała Wisła Valley Within The Oświęcimska Basin
Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 4, pp. 23-31 | Full text
Shaping of the Mała Wisła (‘Little Vistula’) Valley allowed economic use to be made of it by the early Middle Ages. At first,this took the form of the constructing of many mill streams, but then the system of fish ponds characteristic of the Valleylandscape to this day was also put in place (in the 16th-17th centuries). However, the numerous floods affecting the Valleydown the centuries regularly devastated the ponds, as well as filling in or changing the courses of the mill streams.Archive records, sketches and topographic maps all show that the receding of floodwaters was followed by the rebuildingof ponds albeit mostly with shapes, sizes and layouts of embankments different from those that had been present before.This therefore brought about significant changes in the landscape of the Valley. By the end of the 19th century, floods hadproduced very marked changes in the landscape of the Valley under study. In contrast, floods do not now bring aboutpermanent changes in the Valley because the construction of the Goczałkowice Reservoir led to a lowering in the level ofepisodes of peak high water.
Keywords: Poland, Mała Wisła Valley, changes in landscapes, human impact, floods
, 18th-20th Century Flood-Induced Changes In The Landscapes Of The Mała Wisła Valley Within The Oświęcimska Basin
Differentiation of temporal water level dynamics in the Besko and Klimkówka reservoirs (the Low Beskids, Poland)
Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 4, pp. 35-46 | Full text
This article compares the observed water level changes during a hydrological year, in the two Carpathian reservoirs:the Besko and the Klimkówka. The analyzed reservoirs are located within the same physico-geographical unit – the LowBeskids, but the reservoirs operate on rivers with different hydrological regimes (the Wisłok River and the Ropa River). Theperformed analysis shows that during the year, the analyzed reservoirs are characterized by different water level dynamics.The water level changes of the reservoirs are determined by the management of the reservoirs, and more importantly,by the inflow volume as well as the supply distribution throughout the year. The analysis uses archive material provided bythe Regional Water Management Board in Kraków, Poland. The material pertains to the change of water levels in theBesko and Klimkówka Reservoirs between 1996 and 2011.
Keywords: Besko Reservoir, Klimkówka Reservoir, hydrological regime, the Low Beskids, the Polish Carpathians, the Ropa River, the Wisłok River, water level
email@example.com], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], The Regional Water Management Board in Kraków Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 22, 31-109 Kraków: Poland
A geomorphometric analysis of Poland on the basis of SRTM-3 data
Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 4, pp. 47-61 | Full text
The paper presents a range of geomorphometric analyses of Polish territory using both classical and new approaches.The classical outcomes include maps of hypsometry, relative altitude, angle of slope and exposure, as well as altitudesbroken down into ranges and angle of slopes in percentages broken down by administrative province. The new approachincluded the presentation of land relief through standard deviations of relative elevation in regular geometric fields.Maps of hypsometry, elevation difference, angle of slope, exposure and standard deviation were also presented. Thesurvey involved elevation data from the SRTM-3 satellite with a resolution of 3×3' (60-65×90 m), which were converted forresearch purposes into a grid of 125×125 m and then into hexagons with a surface area of 0.14 and 3 km2. This level ofdetail makes the data particularly useful in morphometric analyses, including in applied research. Certain terrain coverageelements, such as forests, especially in lowland and flatland areas, affected the data and would have to be filteredout in applications requiring even higher accuracy.
Keywords: morphometry, geomorphometry, topographic quantification, land relief, land-surface parameters, SRTM, cartographical analyses, Poland
email@example.com], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS