Geographia Polonica (2017) vol. 90, iss. 4


Surface water storage in the Orava – Nowy Targ Basin, Western Carpathians

Adam Łajczak

Geographia Polonica (2017) vol. 90, iss. 4, pp. 383-399

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The Orava – Nowy Targ Basin is one of 31 basins found in the Western Carpathians. While average in size (643 km2), it is the only basin where large amounts of water are stored in vast peat bogs. Until the 16th century,it had not been inhabited and the amount of water stored in peat at that time was estimated to be 171 million m3. Due to the anthropogenic degradation of peat bogs the amount of water has decreased 2.7 times andit is now estimated at 62 million m3. Two dams built in the basin, in the second half of the 20th century, retain reservoirs that store 563 million m3 of water. This amount of water exceeds the earlier loss of water in peatfive times over. If the planned, more ambitious project of dam construction in the basin had been completed,the total capacity of the reservoirs would exceed the water loss in peat by 27 times. The index of lake retention including peat in relation to the area of the basin is determined to be currently 98 cm, but if the project of maximum development of the reservoirs in the basin had taken place, it would reach 270 cm. The estimated useful lifetime of the reservoirs studied suggests theoretically an 80% loss of their initial capacity over a timescaleof one thousand years. Taking into account the current regeneration of peat bogs, there is an optimistic outlook for the protection of the natural and anthropogenic water resources of the basin.

Keywords: surface waters, peat bog, dam-retained reservoir, Orava – Nowy Targ Basin, Orava – Podhale Peatland, Carpathians

Adam Łajczak [], Institute of Geography Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30 -084 Krakow: Poland

Sensitivity of a large flow-through lake to meteorological condition and anthropogenic stress (hydromorphological assessment)

Barbara Nowicka, Marta Bałandin, Anna Nadolna

Geographia Polonica (2017) vol. 90, iss. 4, pp. 401-415

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The paper refers to the contemporary sensitivity of a ribbon flow-through lake to changeable meteorologicalconditions (precipitation, evaporation). We checked whether the lake morphology can affect the abruptchanges in hydrological conditions under which environmental changes occur. We analyzed changes in thelevel and extent of the water table in relation to morphological thresholds of a Charzykowskie Lake. Changesin the lake water level were disproportionate in relation to small changes in the volume of water involved in theexchange. During 55 years of observations, the lake water level did not exceed the threshold values of sensitivityto shortage or surplus stress.

Keywords: climate change, flow-through lake, Charzykowskie Lake, lake morphometry, lake sensitivity, natural resources management, physical limnology

Barbara Nowicka [], Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies University of Warsaw Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warsaw: Poland
Marta Bałandin, Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute Podleśna 61, 01-673 Warsaw: Poland
Anna Nadolna, Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute Podleśna 61, 01-673 Warsaw: Poland

Variability of the zonal circulation index over Central Europe according to the Lityński method

Marek Nowosad

Geographia Polonica (2017) vol. 90, iss. 4, pp. 417-430

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The zonal index, version for Central Europe (called ‘for Poland’), was proposed by Lityński. He calculatedthe pressure difference between latitudes 40° and 65°N on the zone 0-35°E. This paper presents thecharacteristics of the zonal index based on Lityński’s concept and the NCEP/NCAR grid data. A statisticallysignificant increase (1948-2016) occurs in mean values of the zonal index for winter and for the entire year,as well as in the standard deviation and 99 percentile of zonal index. The annual course of the zonal indexis evident.

Keywords: annual course, atmospheric circulation, fluctuations, geostrophic wind, Central Europe, trends, zonal index

Marek Nowosad [], Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Faculty of Earth Science and Spatial Management al. Kraśnicka 2 cd, 20-718 Lublin: Poland

Identification of the Rozwarowo marshes using radar remote sensing

Tatiana Solovey

Geographia Polonica (2017) vol. 90, iss. 4, pp. 431-440

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The main aim of the work was to develop methods of remote identification of marshes, detection of floodedterritories, and classification of plant cover on the basis of data of satellites operating in the optical and microwavespectres in particular. The research is done in 2014 on the territories of the Rozwarowo Marshes natureprotected area, located in the north-eastern Poland in the delta of Oder. The backscattering coefficients (σ°), calculated from Radarsat-2 (Phased Array type C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) images registered at crosspolarization VH on 26 September 2014 were applied for classification of main types of wetland communities.The peculiarities of plant cover are also discovered using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI),calculated on the basis satellite image SPOT-6 on September, the 1st, 2014. The differences in the NDVI valuewithin homogeneous segment of plant are caused, first of all by the soil moisture. Close connection betweenthe soil moisture and the NDVI value for the main groups of plant cover is detected. The application of coefficients σ°VH/σ°VV, calculated on the basis of radar images at the polarization VH and VV and the big rayangle (above 40°) of incidence are suggested for identification of flooded territories.

Keywords: Radarsat-2, radar backscatter, wetland habitats, NDVI, marshes monitoring

Tatiana Solovey [], Polish Geological Institute – National Research Institute Rakowiecka 4, 00-975 Warsaw: Poland

Ecological and cultural importance of juniper ecosystem in the area of Zeravshan valley (Tajikistan) on the background of environmental condition and anthropogenic hazards

Rahmonov Oimahmad, Małgorzata Oimahmad, Magdalena Opała-Owczarek, Piotr Owczarek, Tadeusz Niedźwiedź, Urszula Myga-Piątek

Geographia Polonica (2017) vol. 90, iss. 4, pp. 441-461

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The study analyses physiogeographical factors of the Zeravshan Range as a basis for environmental andhabitat diversity. They provided the background for considering conditions for the functioning of juniper forest ecosystems. The uniqueness of these ecosystems also relies on the longevity of Juniperus seravschanica Kom., J. semiglobosa Regel and J. turkestanica Kom. Physiognomic features of the landscape are conditioned by the habitat, climate, landforms, and recently also by anthropopressure. The ecological, environmental andthe cultural importance of juniper trees makes them a distinctive and determinant feature of the landscape. Currently juniper forests across Tajikistan, including those in the Zeravshan Mts., have been significantly disrupted as a result of chaotic, uncontrolled and excessive felling. The purpose of this article is to present natural conditions of juniper forest ecosystems, the impact of anthropogenic changes on their functioning as well as the occurrence of endemic species within them. The cultural importance of juniper in the protection of the surrounding landscape was also analysed.

Keywords: juniper forest, deforestation, mountain vegetation, environmental conditions, Zeravshan Valley, Tajikistan

Rahmonov Oimahmad [], Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Małgorzata Oimahmad, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Magdalena Opała-Owczarek, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Piotr Owczarek, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland.University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Tadeusz Niedźwiedź, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia Będzińska 60,41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland. Institute of Meteorology and Water Management Borowego 14, 30-215 Kraków, Poland.
Urszula Myga-Piątek, Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland

Forest encroachment on temperate mountain meadows – scale, drivers, and current research directions

Natalia Tokarczyk

Geographia Polonica (2017) vol. 90, iss. 4, pp. 463-480

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Meadows are characteristic features of the forested mountain landscape in the northern temperate zone.In terms of origin, they can be classified as natural, semi-natural and improved. Mountain meadows have greatecological value due to vast biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. However, over the past fewdecades, a significant decrease in their area has been observed in many places across the world. The purposeof this paper is to provide an overview of the scale and the main drivers of forest encroachment on temperatemountain meadows as well as to describe current research directions and methods. The observed declinein meadow area may be driven by natural factors related generally to climate change or may result fromchanges in land use. This process is investigated on a variety of spatial scales ranging from experimental plotsto entire geographic regions. Studies on forest encroachment on mountain meadows are now carried out by researchersfrom many different countries. Nevertheless, there still does not exist a complex, multidisciplinaryapproach and comparative studies for different mountain ranges are not found in the literature.

Keywords: origin of meadows. forest encroachment, secondary succession, climate change, land abandonment

Natalia Tokarczyk [], Institute of Geography and Spatial Management Jagiellonian University Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków: Poland

Effect of a small dam reservoir on the water temperature in a Carpathian river

Łukasz Wiejaczka, Katarzyna Wesoły

Geographia Polonica (2017) vol. 90, iss. 4, pp. 481-491

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The article presents the evolution of water temperature changes in the Wisłok river (the upper Vistula basin)as an effect of Besko reservoir, existing since 1978, with a capacity of 15 million m3. The thermal effect of thissmall Carpathian reservoir is compared to that of larger reservoirs located in the region. As has been found in the analysis, the direction (increase or decrease) of the annual water temperature variations in the Wisłokas a consequence of the thermal conditions in the reservoir is the same as in other Carpathian rivers downstream of larger reservoirs. On the other hand, the scale of that effect is much smaller and it is observablein a shorter section of the river compared to other rivers with reservoirs. Therefore, the thermal effects of Beskoreservoir may be considered of little significance for the natural environment.

Keywords: water temperature, dam, reservoir, river, Carpathians

Łukasz Wiejaczka [], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland
Katarzyna Wesoły [], The Regional Water Management Board in Kraków Marszałka J. Piłsudskiego 22, 31-109 Kraków: Poland

Project Report

Testing of differential elevation models based on combined airborne and long-range terrestrial laser scanning for assessment of river bank erosion

Sebastian Tyszkowski, Halina Kaczmarek, Szymon Linowski, Włodzimierz Marszelewski

Geographia Polonica (2017) vol. 90, iss. 4, pp. 493-498

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Sebastian Tyszkowski []
Halina Kaczmarek [], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 87-100 Torun, Kopernika 19, Poland
Włodzimierz Marszelewski []

International ICLEA Final Symposium (Potsdam, 7-9 June 2017)

Michał Fojutowski, Mateusz Kramkowski

Geographia Polonica (2017) vol. 90, iss. 4, pp. 499-501

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Michał Fojutowski []

Poland on maps

Mapping ecosystem services – a new regional-scale approach

Bogusława Kruczkowska, Jerzy Solon, Jacek Wolski

Geographia Polonica (2017) vol. 90, iss. 4, pp. 503-520

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Identifying the potential of ecosystems to provide ecosystem services (ES) is largely dependent on the detailand completeness of the base ecosystem map. The existing guidelines for the construction of this type of mapinclude only a few basic types of ecosystems that work only at a national or international scale and are insufficient to identify the full potential of ecosystem services at local or regional scales. The aim of the study was to develop a comprehensive map of ecosystem types for mapping ecosystem services at a local and regionalscale in three selected communes located within young glacial landscape (NE Poland). As a result, a detailedmap of ecosystems has been constructed containing 42 ecosystem types including age and habitat categories.This original map is the first detailed cartographic work that can be successfully used to determine thepotential for ecosystem services to be provided by areas analysed in large scales. The proposed approach hasa universal character and can be also applied to any area analysed at similar spatial scales.

Keywords: ecosystem services, ecosystem, mapping, GIS, Poland

Bogusława Kruczkowska []
Jerzy Solon [], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Jacek Wolski [], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland