Sylwia Gilewska

Articles

The Tertiary environment of Poland

Sylwia Gilewska

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 19-42 | Full text

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Abstract:

At the beginning of the Tertiary there came into being the three principalpalaeogeographical units of Poland's territory which showed different developmentaltendencies. The vast Tethys Ocean prevailed in the south throughout the LowerTertiary. In upper Tertiary times, emergence of the Carpathians took place there. In thenorth, the present Polish Lowlands showed dominant tendencies towards subsidencecausing repeated transgression of the shallow Lower Tertiary epicontinental seas. Inupper Tertiary times, here extended the central inland basin and later on either aperiodically flooded area or a residual lake of marine origin. The above units weredivided by a land-bridge named the meta-Carpathian elevation (J. Nowak 1927). Theremaining portion of it is the present belt of both ancient orogens and uplands markedby a diversity of structure-controlled relief types. The history of relief will be describedagainst the background of vegetation and climatic conditions prevailing in the differentphases of the Tertiary.Since most of Poland's territory has been buried in Quaternary times by theFennoscandian inland-ice, the state of preservation of the old surfaces differs widely.Furthermore, the ice-free areas were subjected to intense periglacial processes. As aconsequence, the Tertiary relief had to be reconstructed in southern Poland(L. Starkel 1965). The various erosional-denudational relief types surround frequently,in a series of steps, the great tectonic elevations reflecting both the vertical zonation offeatures and successive stages in the relief evolution. The latter may be inferred from acomplex analysis of the different genetic-chronologic relief types, associated smallerlandforms, and of waste- and allogenic sheets. The text is illustrated by fourpalaeogeomorphological maps which are based on the published data cited under"References".

Keywords:

Sylwia Gilewska, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland

The 1:500 000 Geomorphological Map of Poland

Sylwia Gilewska, Maria Klimkowa, Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1982) vol. 48, pp. 7-24 | Full text

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Abstract:

The 1:500 000 Geomorphological Map of Poland, the purpose of whichis to reconstruct the relief evolution in general by taking morphostructuresas well as genetic relief types fully into account, synthesizes up-todatework on the relief of Poland. An additional aim of publishing thismap by the Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academyof Sciences, was to put forward a geomorphological division of thecountry. The map also places in focus the lacunae of geomorphologicalresearch which need further detailed studies. This map was constructedin the Cracow Department of Geomorphology and Hydrology of Mountainsand Uplands, acting in co-operation with expersts from all major scientificcentres in Poland (cf. legend for the map). The map was edited by Prof.L. Starkel, with the assistance of Dr. S. Gilewska and Mrs. M. Klimkowawho also has handdrawn all sheets. Dr. K. Trafas and his collaborators ofthe Polish Society of Earth Sciences have taken part in the preparation ofthe final cartographic edition of the map which was printed at the WojskoweZakłady Kartograficzne, Warsaw. Map data relate to 1968.

Keywords:

Sylwia Gilewska, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland
Maria Klimkowa, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow
Leszek Starkel [starkel@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Planation surfaces in the light of the 1 : 300,000 geomorphological map of Poland

Maria Baumgart-Kotarba, Sylwia Gilewska, Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1976) vol. 33 1, pp. 5-23 | Full text

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Abstract:

Planationsurfaces, being included into the contents of the 1:300,000 Geo-morphological Map of Poland, are surfaces of subaerial destruction which resulted from the joint action of various factors in pre-Pleistocene sensu stricto times. These surfaces cut across rocks of different resistance and vari-ous structures forming the Sudetes Mts., together with the Sudetes Foreland, the Central Polish Uplands and the Carpathians. North of lat. 51°N the down-warped Central Polish Uplands merge gradually beneath the unbroken cover of glacial and glacio-fluvial deposits. In the Polish Lowland, therefore, old sur-faces are now buried by Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits (S. Biernat 1968; E. Ciuk 1961; F. Różycki 1956). Beyond the limit of the last Scandinavian glaciation, young destruction surfaces of exogenic origin also developed on the older glacial and glacio-fluvial deposits (J. Dylik 1953; K. Rotnicki 1966). A discussion of the fossil planation surfaces and Pleistocene surfaces of destruc-tion, however, falls outside the scope of this paper. Its aim is to show the regional differentiation in the development and state of preservation of the pre-Pleistocene planation surfaces in southern Poland in relation to morpho-structure, its general neotectonic tendencies and trends of evolution.Regional analysis is based upon the 1:300,000 Geomorphological Map of Poland which was prepared in the Cracow Branch of the Institute of Geo-graphy, Polish Academy of Siencies, during the period 1966 to 1973, acting in cooperation with specialists in regional geomorphology from Wrocław, Poznań, Warszawa, Lublin, Toruń and Gdańsk. The regional maps described in this paper were prepared by H. Piasecki (the Sudetes Mts. and Sudetes Foreland), S. Gilewska (the Uplands of Silesia and Małopolska), H. Maruszczak (the Lub-lin-Volhynian Upland), K. Klimek and L. Starkel (sub-Carpathian Basins) and L. Starkel (the Carpathians).

Keywords:

Maria Baumgart-Kotarba, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Św. Jana 22, 31-018 Kraków, Poland
Sylwia Gilewska, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland
Leszek Starkel, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Changes in Geographical Environment brought about by Industrialization and Urbanization

Sylwia Gilewska

Geographia Polonica (1964) vol. 3, pp. 201-210 | Full text

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Keywords:

Sylwia Gilewska, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland