Treelines have long been recognized as important ecotones and likely harbingers of climate change. However, over the last century many treelines have been affected not only by global warming, but also by the interactions of climate, forest disturbance and the consequences of abrupt demographic and economic changes. Recent research has increasingly stressed how multiple ecological, biophysical, and human factors interact to shape ecological dynamics. Here we highlight the need to consider interactions among multiple drivers to more completely understand and predict treeline dynamics in Europe.
Dominik Kulakowski [email@example.com], Graduate School of Geography Clark University 950 Main Street, MA 01610, Worcester: USA
Ignacio Barbeito [firstname.lastname@example.org], Laboratoire d’Etude des Ressources Forêt Bois (LERFoB) Centre INRA de Nancy INRA, UMR1092, Champenoux : France
Alejandro Casteller [email@example.com], WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF Flüelastrasse 11, CH-7260 Davos Dorf: Switzerland
Ryszard J. Kaczka [firstname.lastname@example.org], Faculty of Earth Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41 -200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Peter Bebi [email@example.com], WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF Flüelastrasse 11, CH-7260 Davos Dorf: Switzerland