Geographia Polonica (1997) vol. 68

Anthropogenic impact on water conditions (Vistula and Oder river basins)


Anthropogenic changes in the suspended load transportation by and sedimentation rates of the river Vistula, Poland

Adam Lajczak

Geographia Polonica (1997) vol. 68, pp. 7-30 | Full text

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Evidence is presented that regulation works on the Vistula channel haveintroduced very significant and rapid changes in the magnitude of river loadtransportation and sedimentation. It is acknowledged that human interferencerepresents the most significant cause of change in the Vistula catchment withinhistorical times. The alluviation of the Vistula valley floodplain as described here, whichwas initiated about 150 years ago, may be compared with the equally rapid changes ofload transportation by and sedimentation rates of other rivers influenced by intensiveurbanization.

Keywords: bedload, channelization, overbank sedimentation, reservoir siltation, suspended load, Vistula River.

Adam Lajczak, Institute of Nature Conservation Polish Academy of Sciences Lubicz 46, 31-512 Krakow, Poland

Structure of the solute yield in the Vistula river basin with special regard to anthropogenic components

Henryk Maruszczak, Maria Wilgat

Geographia Polonica (1997) vol. 68, pp. 31-50 | Full text

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On the basis of data concerning small catchments not polluted bymunicipal and industrial sewage we calculated the solute yield from rural areas.Calculations were carried out in a simplified way, taking into consideration the meansolute concentrations from data for the years 1976-1985, and mean discharges of riverwaters. For 20 selected larger catchments of the Vistula tributaries we also calculatedthe total solute yield, i.e. including the sources of municipal and industrial wastewater.On the basis of these and other data we attempted to analyse the balance of the soluteyield. Components taken into account come from: precipitation, agricultural chemicals,farm sewage, municipal and industrial wastewater, and chemical denudation of thelithosphere. Results were considered in relation to regional differentiation. Essentialchanges in the solute yield structure were also noted in comparison with the period ofthe 1930's.

Keywords: anthropogenic impact, chemical denudation, municipal and industrial wasterwater, solute concentration and yield, Vistula River, Eastern Poland

Henryk Maruszczak, Department of Physical Geography and Paleogeography, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
Maria Wilgat, Department of Physical Geography and Paleogeography, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland

The influence of waters from hard-coal mines on the hydrochemical relations of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) rivers

Andrzej T. Jankowski

Geographia Polonica (1997) vol. 68, pp. 53-64 | Full text

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Surface waters of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) are highlytransformed in quality as a consequence of salty minewater discharge to the hydrographicnet. These waters drain coal beds which are extracted to a depth of 1000 m.The amount of minewater, discharging directly or indirectly to the river net of the USCBreaches 8—9 m3/s with a variability in particular years of 1—1.5 m3/s, which depends onhydrological conditions of the levels extracted. In 1994, the salt load introduced togetherwith these waters to the Vistula and the Oder reached 6793 tons per 24 hours of chlorideions and 1351 tons per 24 hours of sulphate ions. This accounted for over 50% of thechlorides and about 35% of the sulphates discharged to surface waters in the country.Furthermore, a part of the minewater also contains radioactive elements (radium22 ).The chance to improve the quality of the Oder and Vistula waters in the nearest futureis meagre.

Keywords: minewaters, hydrochemistry, water quality, salinity of river waters, Upper Silesian Coal Basin

Andrzej T. Jankowski, Department of Physical Geography, Silesian University Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland

The influence of anthropopressure on water relations in the Wielkopolska Lowland

Alfred Kaniecki

Geographia Polonica (1997) vol. 68, pp. 65-80 | Full text

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This contribution describes the influence of anthropopressure on waterconditions in the Wielkopolska Lowland. In particular this is connected with gainingnew areas for agriculture: firstly through deforestation and then through drainage ofmarshy areas. As an effect of this hydro-economic activity of man the natural cycle andbalance of hydrological processes have often been interrupted. This is particularlyvisible in the modification of the hydrographie network; e.g. changes in river routes,the elimination of some rivers and lakes, the loss of marsh areas and the regulation ofoutflow conditions in rivers. Dewatering of the Wielkopolska Lowland has progressedfor around 1000 years and is manifested in the form of increasing water shortages.

Keywords: anthropopressure on water conditions, water management, drainage work, Wielkopolska Lowland, Central Poland.

Alfred Kaniecki, Institute of Physical Geography, Adam Mickiewicz University Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań, Poland

Anthropogenic changes in water conditions in the Lublin Area

Zdzisław Michalczyk, Marek Jarosław Łoś

Geographia Polonica (1997) vol. 68, pp. 81-97 | Full text

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The development of the city of Lublin has been closely associated with theexploitation of water resources in the Bystrzyca river basin. The extension of this citydistinctly affects the water conditions of the middle part of this basin. Lublin is suppliedwith water almost solely from underground resources, a situation which has beendictated by excellent-quality and easily-available underground waters and smallresources of surface water. A high level of exploitation of the underground waters hasled to considerable changes in water circulation. Its character and grade have beenchanging over the centuries with the development of the city and an increase in waterneeds.

Keywords: water circulation, water resources, changes in water conditions, Bystrzyca river basin, Eastern Poland

Marek Jarosław Łoś, Bureau of Water Management Projects and Environment Protection Kapucyńska 1A, 20-009 Lublin, Poland

Changes in the chemism of the waters of the Łabuńka river catchment under the influence of municipal and industrial wastewater

Andrzej Świeca

Geographia Polonica (1997) vol. 68, pp. 99-115 | Full text

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In the years 1989-1992, river water samples for physicochemicalanalyses were taken at 9 points of the Łabuńka river catchment up-stream of thegauging station of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) inKrzak. These show differentiation in hydrochemical features controlled by the lithologyof the bedrock. Particular consideration was given to changes caused by municipalwastewater from Zamość. An attempt was made to determine the content of solutescoming from sewage.

Keywords: water chemism, hydrochemical background, municipal and industrial wastewater, chemical denudation, solute yield, anthropopressure, Zamość Basin, Eastern Poland

Andrzej Świeca, Department of Physical Geography & Paleogeography, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland

Hydrological consequences of human action in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake Region

Tadeusz Wilgat, Bronisław Janiec, Zdzisław Michalczyk, Marek Turczyński

Geographia Polonica (1997) vol. 68, pp. 117-147 | Full text

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An attempt was made to define the character and dynamics of hydrographicalchanges in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake Region. They have been influenced notonly by agricultural land use, but also by the building of the Wieprza-Krzna canal andthe drainage system connected with it, by rapid development of tourism, and by coalmining. Cartographic materials, hydrometrie data, and field work carried out from thebeginning of the 50's by research workers of the Department of Hydrography, MariaCurie-Sklodowska University, were a basis for these studies.

Keywords: anthropopressure, water management, water quality, environmental protection, Polesie Lubelskie region, Eastern Poland

Tadeusz Wilgat, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin
Bronisław Janiec, Institute of Earth Sciences, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin. Poland