Geographia Polonica (2000) vol. 73, iss. 1


Labour market reform and youth unemployment in Poland

Mike Ingham, Hilary Ingham

Geographia Polonica (2000) vol. 73, iss. 1, pp. 5-24 | Full text

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Widespread youth unemployment has been an unwelcome, if predictable, cost of Polish labour market reform. Yet even though young people everywhere are over-repre-sented in the unemployment pool, the burden of the early shock was not borne equally across the country. This paper charts the emergence of the problem and its distribution across space while examining the possibility that the early regional inequalities were transitory. Although there was a trend towards convergence during the upswing in unemployment, it was neither achieved fully, nor is the process continuing. It is, of course, possible that persistent disparities in the seriousness of youth unemployment may be tolerable in an environment in which unemployment generally is now falling. However, the paper urges that recent signs of some improvement in the situation of young people on the labour market should not be taken to imply that active policy interventions have thereby been rendered redundant. The extent of long-term unemployment amongst the young, the demographic trends, and the inevitable future restructuring of large parts of the economy suggest that unemployment may be the lasting legacy of the shock-therapy adopted by the authors of the Polish transformation.

Keywords: Poland, youth, unemployment, convergence, regions

Mike Ingham, European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, UK
Hilary Ingham, Department of Economics, The Management School, Lancaster University, Lancaster LAI 4YX, UK

Unemployment dynamics in the process of system transformation in Poland

Teresa Czyż, Paweł Churski, Jan Hauke

Geographia Polonica (2000) vol. 73, iss. 1, pp. 24-46 | Full text

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The article presents an analysis of changes in the level and character of unem-ployment in Poland in the years 1990-1998 on the basis of a national and a regional approach. It embraces: (1) relations between national unemployment and changes in the economy, (2) a classification of regions on the basis of relative unemployment, and (3) the testing of the process of petrifaction of the regional structure of unemployment using the T-technique of principal components analysis.

Keywords: Poland, national unemployment and stages of transformation, regional vari-ation in unemployment over time, T-technique of principal components analysis

Teresa Czyż [], Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Space Economy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań, Poland
Paweł Churski [], Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Space Economy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań, Poland
Jan Hauke, Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Space Economy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań, Poland

Geographical study on changes in the spatial structure of the distribution system by informatization

Kenji Hashimoto

Geographia Polonica (2003) vol. 73, iss. 1, pp. 47-62 | Full text

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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of informatization (influence of the development of information technologies) on the spatial structure of industrial orga-nizations. The analysis was based on case studies of the distribution system in Japan. The following three viewpoints are identified for further studies: the first is a change in the spatial structure in a physical distribution system, the second is a change in the spatial structure in a sale system held by manufacturers and wholesalers, the third point is a change in informa-tion flows in the distribution system.

Keywords: information technology (IT), distribution system, sales system, information network, Japan

Kenji Hashimoto, Osaka Gakuin University, Kishibe Suita City, Osaka 564-8511, Japan

The demographic status of and perspectives for the Russian Federation

Piotr Eberhardt

Geographia Polonica (2000) vol. 73, iss. 1, pp. 63-76 | Full text

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The paper presents the demographic problems of the Russian Federation. The demographic developments in Russia to date are first shown. In spite of two World Wars and the enormous losses incurred by the Russian population, this population continued to feature strong demographic dynamics until the disintegration of the Soviet Union began. The turning point came during the 1990s, as difficult politico-economic conditions brought an abrupt decline in the birthrate along with an increase in mortality. The population then started to decrease. The subsequent part of the paper presents the demographic forecasts for Russia. They are pessimistic indeed, showing that the 50 years to come will see the population in Russia decreasing steadily. The author outlines the socio-economic consequences of this already persistent phenomenon, and shows that the demographic decline in Russia may have quite fundamental geopolitical repercussions. Indeed, this question has become the focus of a very broad scientific discussion in Russia, so the paper presents the views of numerous Russian demographers and politologists. Many of these opinions are of an alarmist character and sere to inflame the political atmosphere in Russia.

Keywords: population of Russian Federation, demographic forecasts, socio-economic consequences, demography and geopolitics

Piotr Eberhardt [], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00‑818 Warszawa, Poland

Major disputes on the methods of calculating local expenditure needs. A case study for large German cities

Chang Woon Nam

Geographia Polonica (2000) vol. 73, iss. 1, pp. 77-94 | Full text

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Due mainly to rapidly diversifying and expanding urban activities in an en-larged Europe and also partly to the continued decrease in local tax revenue in recent years, large German cities are currently suffering from the lack of financial means to cover increas-ing expenditure needs. In this context, they argue that the German-style method of intergov-ernmental fiscal transfer and resource allocation applied in practice do not adequately con-sider the particular socio-economic conditions in large cities. This study compares the Ger-man way of measuring local expenditure needs with other empirical methods implemented in countries like Norway and Japan and introduces its reform alternatives. Additionally the study examines some significant socio-economic determinants from the point of view of the large German cities.

Keywords: local expenditure needs, Germany, large cities, socio-economic determinants for urban development

Chang Woon Nam, Ifo Institute for Economic Research, Poschinger Str. 5. 81679 Munich, Germany

Challenges of regionalism: development and spatial structure of the Hungarian banking system

Zoltan Gal

Geographia Polonica (2000) vol. 73, iss. 1, pp. 95-126 | Full text

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This paper is concerned with the spatial characteristics of the Hungarian bank-ing system. Financial services became the key sector in the processes of economic transfor-mation and one differentiated by uneven regional development. The spatial structure of the banking sector is characterised by a large-scale concentration in Budapest, but the foundation boom of branch offices is also typical in the regions, as the necessity of a presence on local markets, as well as competition for the retail market, stimulate banks to expand their branch networks. Commercial banks, which have their headquarters exclusively in Budapest, largely confine themselves to the collection of deposits in their national network, resulting in capital drainage and net capital loss from most of the regions. The presence of the centralised capital market and the lack of a decentralised regional financial system can restrain and slow down regional development in the long run.

Keywords: Hungarian banking system, transitional financial markets, banking network, global-local dichotomy, uneven regional development

Zoltan Gal, Centre for Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Kaposvâr PO.BOX 199, 7601 Pecs, HUNGARY

Internal migration in today's Japan

Satoshi Nakagawa

Geographia Polonica (2000) vol. 73, iss. 1, pp. 127-140 | Full text

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Studies of Japan's internal migration have developed over the last few decades in accordance with changing research methodologies. In particular, the migration between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas has drawn the attention of researchers. Japanese geographers have observed changing migration patterns, i.e. migration turnarounds in post--war Japan, and have tried to explain them in connection with economic determinants and cohort size in young adults. The obvious inflow into metropolitan areas before the mid 1970s was mostly explained by economic indicators, while the changing cohort size of young adults based on the baby boom in the late 1940s affected the neutral or slightly negative net-migra-tion for metropolitan areas during the mid 1970s and mid 1980s. The "reurbanization" trend after the mid 1980s can be attributed partly to Tokyo's change into a "global city". The traditional cross-sectional approach to migration studies seems, however, to be losing its efficacy gradually because of the diversified behaviours of migrants. The author has therefore presented a longitudinal study of migrants and pointed out the increasing importance for the recent migration trend of non-economic factors, such as education and marriage.

Keywords: internal migration, metropolitan area, non-metropolitan area, longitudinal approach, cohort, Japan

Satoshi Nakagawa, Department of Economic Geography, Kobe University Rokkaodai-cho 2-1, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 Japan

The application of Fourier expansion in estimating the annual variation to the vertical gradient of some meteorological parameters

Janusz Olejnik, Jacek Leśny, Frank Eulenstein

Geographia Polonica (2000) vol. 73, iss. 1, pp. 141-152 | Full text

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Data from 18 meteorological stations in the southern part of Germany were analysed. Long-term average data (1958-1987) were compared with altitude data for meteo-rological stations in the Main River catchment, which varied from 150 to 920 m above sea level. Linear regression analysis against altitude was carried out for each month for six meteorological parameters: air temperature, precipitation, vapour pressure, saturation vapour pressure deficit, wind speed and relative humidity. The regression shows a very significant correlation for the analysed meteorological parameters. The annual variation to the vertical gradients for these parameters is also shown. To estimate gradient variation a Fourier expan-sion of the annual cycle is applied (given by monthly values of the gradients) and terms up to the first harmonic retained. Using the proposed functions for vertical gradient estimation, the areal distributions of temperature are calculated and average values for those parameters within the Main River catchment shown at monthly and yearly resolution. The areal distribu-tion to mean annual temperature was determined and presented as a grid map.

Keywords: Fourier expansion, vertical gradient, annual variation

Janusz Olejnik, Agrometeorology Department of The Agricultural University in Poznan, ul. Witosa 45, 60-647 Poznan, Poland
Jacek Leśny, Agrometeorology Department of The Agricultural University in Poznan, ul. Witosa 45, 60-647 Poznan, Poland
Frank Eulenstein, Zentrum fur Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muncheberg, Germany

Differentiation of Europe's mammal fauna against a background of biogeographical units, the area of units and mammalian taxonomic richness

Bożenna Grabińska

Geographia Polonica (2000) vol. 73, iss. 1, pp. 153-164 | Full text

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Analysis considered the relationship between the occurrence of mammals and geographical location in Europe, as well as the size of biogeographical units. It was found that there was differentiation in the qualitative composition of the mammal fauna in the north-south direction, which resulted from the overall zonal distribution of cool, temperate and hot areas. The correlation between the number of species and the area of a unit was not statistically significant in every case considered. Besides area, the regional variability of environmental

Keywords: Zoogeography, mammals, ranges, regionalization, Europe

Bożenna Grabińska [], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00‑818 Warszawa, Poland