Geographia Polonica (2011) vol. 84, iss. 1
In the hitherto works concerning the course of the upper tree-limit or mountain pine-limit and their relation with mean annual temperature, the limits of vegetation horizons were determined much more precisely than the location of isotherms - the latter were determined bas-ing on interpolation and extrapolation of data from meteorological stations. Thanks to the applica-tion of Onset HOBO data loggers, the measurements of air temperature were carried out in select-ed sites at the upper tree-limit in Sucha Woda Valley in the Tatra Mountains. The measurements were conducted every hour during 4 months in warm period in 2007. The measurement sites were located in different land reliefs of different exposition. The lowest temperature was recorded in the depression of a channel shape located about 100 m below the other sites. Also in the next site located in a concave land form - the bottom of the Czarny Potok valley, the recorded temperature was lower than in the sites located in non-dismembered area. Despite the fact that the investiga-tions had only a preliminary character, they showed that the upper tree-limit and probably also the mountain pine-limit should not be compared with the course of mean annual temperatures deter-mined basing on interpolation and extrapolation. Only direct measurements of temperature in the field give a true picture of relation between the relief and microclimate and the upper tree-limit.
firstname.lastname@example.org], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Św. Jana 22, 31-018 Kraków, Poland[
In order to show the influence of selected cemeteries in Krakow on components of environments, the element contents in the ground over burials, in the clover and fungi as well as the ions concentration in the ground waters, were investigated. The results were compared to the geological background and to the measurements taken on other cemeteries in south-east Poland. The attention was also drawn to geological products of decomposition. Over burials low contents of elements were confirmed. High iron ion concentration in ground water indicates its useful presence in deposits for decomposition products sorption. Relatively low pollutants con-centrations are related to advantageous locations of the cemeteries; deep level of ground water, the presence of absorbents in the deposits, surfaces of cemeteries are impervious and passable dehydration systems.
The study was based on the research completed by the authors. The research for the study was based on the use of a relatively broad selection of cartographic materials as well as scientific literature. The characteristics of 17 kinds1 of natural landscapes and 31 variations of landscape of the Chełmno-Dobrzyń Lakeland, Ursziilewo Plain and the neighbouring Vistida and Drwęca Valleys were described. The origins of the terrains provided the main criteria used for identifying the kinds of landscapes. A relationship to the appropriate sort of natural landscapes (glacial, glacioaquatic, aeolian, depression, river and channel valley), and the morphology and hypsometry of the land reliefs (flat plains, undulated plains, hills, ridges, high slopes) determined the terrain origin. When identifying the different variations of natural landscape, the following were of major importance: the land relief (defined as the kinds of landscape), and lithology of the surface deposits, and land use (forests, arable land, meadows and pastures). Urban areas and large excavations were described separately. Similar distinctions of kinds and variations of landscape used by other authors, are noted elsewhere.
, Institute of Geography, Nicholaus Copernicus University, Fredry 8. 87-100 Toruń, Poland
, Faculty of Earth Sciences Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń: Poland
The aim of the work described here has been to assess the contents of, and interrela-tionships between, the different forms of iron and aluminium present in soils, these being treated as indicative of soil-cover development and its contemporary functioning in an area under the very significant impact of atmospheric factors with a periodically endopercolative type of water regime. The area in question was the Cherrapunji Spur area of India, as extending along the southern slope of the Meghalaya Plateau, with its highest annual precipitation totals concen-trated during the period of the summer monsoon. Results show how the contents of the different forms of the two elements in soil offer an ideal tool by which to both determine the conditioning present in the palaeo-environments in which given soil covers developed and evaluate the pedo-genic processes ongoing currently.
email@example.com], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00‑818 Warszawa, Poland[
The paper contains the characteristics of selected tors of the Chochołowska Valley, tak-ing into account their geological structure, morphological location, aspect, morphometries, shape and microrelief of the surface of rock walls, as well as position in the altitudinal climate-vegeta-tion belt. It is shown that individual tor groups are typified by low mutual similarity.
Spatial historical analysis is very helpful in research. Historical analyses allow for: the re-construction of the process underpinning the creation and evolution of cultural landscapes from the Middle Ages up to modern times; the identification of phenomena and processes that are the direct and indirect consequences of historical events; and the reconstruction of cause-and-effect connections between events in a region and the contemporary physiognomy of its cultural land-scape.
firstname.lastname@example.org], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00‑818 Warszawa, Poland[