Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 3

Spatial conditioning and consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic. An Opening Report

Articles

Stages of spatial dispersion of the COVID-19 epidemic in Poland in the first six months (4 March-20 September, 2020)

Przemysław Śleszyński

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 3, pp. 305-324 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0207

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Abstract:

The article is a continuation of research published by the author elsewhere (Śleszyński, 2020). The elaboration presents the regularity of spatial distribution of infections during the first six months after the detection of SARS-CoV-2 coronovirus in Poland under strong lockdown conditions. The main aim is to try to determine the basic temporal-spatial patterns and to answer the questions: to what extent the phenomenon was ordered and to what extent it was chaotic, whether there are any particular features of spread, whether the infectionis concentrated or dispersed and whether the spreading factors in Poland are similar to those observed in other countries. Daily data by county (poviat) were collected by Rogalski's team (2020). The data were aggregated to weekly periods (7 days) and then the regularity of spatial distribution was searched for using the cartogram method, time series shifts, rope correlation between the intensity of infections in different periods, Herfindahl-Hirschman concentration index (HHI) and cluster analysis. A spatial typology of infection development in the population was also performed. Among other things, it was shown that during the first period (about 100 days after the first case), the infections became more and more spatially concentrated and then dispersed. Differences were also shown in relation to the spread of the infection compared to observations from other countries, i.e. no relation to population density and level of urbanization.

Keywords: pandemic, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, medical geography, geoepidemiology, spatial diffusion, lockdown, Poland

Przemysław Śleszyński [psleszyn@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS

Spatio-temporal analysis of the development of the COVID-19 epidemic (pandemic) in Poland: First phase of development

Jerzy J. Parysek, Lidia Mierzejewska

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 3, pp. 325-354 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0208

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Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to present a description of the course of the COVID-19 epidemic in Poland in the space-time dimension in the period from March 15th to August 8th 2020. The result of the conducted research is a presentation of the regional differentiation of the course of the epidemic in Poland, the comparison of the intensity of SARS-CoV-2 infections in particular voivodeships, the determination of the degree of similarity in the course of the pandemic development process in individual regions (voivodeships) of the country, and also the indication of the factors which could be taken into account when attempting to explain the interregional differences in the course of the epidemic. The conducted research shows, among other things, that: (1) in terms of time, the development of the epidemic was generally monotonic, however the increase in new infections was rather cyclical, (2) in the spatial dimension, the development of the epidemic was rather random, although the greatest number of infections was characteristic of the most populated regions of the country,(3) the level of infections in Poland was mainly positively influenced by: population density, working in industry, people beyond retirement, age as well as a poorly developed material base of inpatient care.

Keywords: pandemic, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus, coronavirus infections, trajectories, factors, regional variation, Poland

Jerzy J. Parysek [parys@amu.edu.pl], Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Space Economy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań, Poland
Lidia Mierzejewska [mierzeja@amu.edu.pl], Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Space Economy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań, Poland

Temporal variation of spatial autocorrelation of COVID-19 cases identified in Poland during the year from the beginning of the pandemic

Alfred Stach

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 3, pp. 355-380 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0209

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Abstract:

The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has a simultaneous temporal and spatial component. This pattern results from a complex combination of factors, including social ones, that lead to significant differences in the evolution of space-time distributions, both between and within countries. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the regularity of the spatial distribution of the number of diagnosed COVID-19 cases in Poland over more than a year of the pandemic. The analysis utilized daily and weekly data for 380 counties (poviats), using the local – Poisson risk semivariogram – measure of spatial autocorrelation. Despite the heterogeneity and errors in the source data, it was possible to identify clear patterns of temporal changes in the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases, manifested by differences in the nature and extent of their autocorrelation.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 cases, spatial autocorrelation, Poisson risk semivariogram, Poland, counties (poviats)

Alfred Stach [alfred.stach@amu.edu.pl], Department of Geoinformation, Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation Faculty of Geographical and Geological Sciences of the Adam Mickiewicz University Bogumiła Krygowskiego 10, 61-680 Poznań: Poland

Social response and spatial mobility change due to COVID-19 pandemic in Poland

Joanna Stępień, Tomasz Michalski, Jakub Grabowski, Przemysław Waszak, Maja Grabkowska, Aleksandra Macul, Jakub Jan Rojek

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 3, pp. 381-396 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0210

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Abstract:

As global communities respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an increasing emphasis on public health strategies, like implementation of ‘lockdowns’, closure of educational institutions and offices, cancellation of events, and enforcement of social distancing measures to slow the rate of transmission. The main objective of this article is to find out how the public health interventions and national lockdown affected people’s perception and attitudes to limited mobility and how people reacted by their spatial mobility behaviours in new reality of the first weeks of COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. The study is based on the on-line survey research conducted among Polish residents supplemented by the analysis of data on changes in the spatial mobility based on Google dataset. The obtained results highlight high level of self-discipline in the populationin response to restrictions and social distancing obligations, and as a result significantly lower spatial mobility level, before the restrictions began to be lifted. The size of the respondents’ place of residence had the greatest impact on changes in spatial mobility.

Keywords: social response, spatial mobility change, COVID-19 pandemic, Poland

Joanna Stępień [joanna.stepien@ug.edu.pl], Department of Socio-Economic Geography, Institute of Geography University of Gdańsk, Bażyńskiego 4, 80-952 Gdańsk: Poland
Tomasz Michalski [tomasz.michalski@ug.edu.pl], Department of Regional Development, Institute of Geography University of Gdańsk, Bażyńskiego 4, 80-952 Gdańsk: Poland
Jakub Grabowski [jakub.grabowski@gumed.edu.pl], Department of Developmental Psychiatry, Psychotic and Geriatric Disorders Medical University of Gdańsk, Skłodowskiej-Curie 3a, 80-210 Gdańsk: Poland
Przemysław Waszak [p.waszak@gumed.edu.pl], Department of Hygiene & Epidemiology, Department of Developmental Psychiatry, Psychotic and Geriatric Disorders Medical University of Gdańsk, Skłodowskiej-Curie 3a, 80-210 Gdańsk: Poland
Maja Grabkowska [maja.grabkowska@ug.edu.pl], Department of Socio-Economic Geography, Institute of Geography University of Gdańsk, Bażyńskiego 4, 80-952 Gdańsk: Poland
Aleksandra Macul [aleksandramacul@gumed.edu.pl], Adult Psychiatry Scientific Circle, Department of Developmental Psychiatry, Psychotic and Geriatric Disorders Medical University of Gdańsk, Skłodowskiej-Curie 3a, 80-210 Gdańsk: Poland
Jakub Jan Rojek [jakubjanrojek@gumed.edu.pl], Adult Psychiatry Scientific Circle, Department of Developmental Psychiatry, Psychotic and Geriatric Disorders Medical University of Gdańsk, Skłodowskiej-Curie 3a, 80-210 Gdańsk: Poland

The impact of COVID-19 on education in Poland: Challenges related to distance learning

Adam Hibszer, Mariola Tracz

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 3, pp. 397-411 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/GPol.0211

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Abstract:

The spread of COVID-19 all over the world triggered major changes in the organization of the education in many countries. Governments have adopted various solutions to reduce the disruption caused to education.This article, which is based on survey research (N=246) conducted among teachers in various types of schools in Poland, provides an analysis of the solutions in the field of distance learning and the organization of learning process during lockdown. The results show that teachers encountered a number of difficulties in distance learning. They concerned, among others: lack of access among certain students to computers, insufficient competences of teachers to teach remotely, work organization, and the fact that students were bored with this learning form. The advantages included, among others: increasing digital competences and developing new forms of assessing students’ knowledge.

Keywords: COVID-19 risk impact, education, e-learning, school, Poland

Adam Hibszer [adam.hibszer@us.edu.pl], Institute of Social and Economic Geography and Spatial Management, Faculty of Natural Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland
Mariola Tracz [mtracz-62@o2.pl], Polish Geography Society, Branch in Cracow Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Krakow: Poland

Education of students of the Polish universities in the first weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus

Kamila Ziółkowska-Weiss, Franciszek Mróz

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 3, pp. 413-427 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0212

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Abstract:

The main aim of the research was to answer the research questions: how the science went – studying Polishuniversity students in the first weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and what were the main barriers to learning for Polish students during the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey methodh as been applied to collect empirical material among students. In the survey, CAWI (Computer-AssistedWeb Interview) Internet questionnaire, sent via e-mail to students in the form of the invitation to the survey with a link to the survey, has been used in the survey. Research shows that the vast majority of the students felt anxiety, uncertainty about taking their maturity examinations, bachelor’s and master’s degree examinations and having the academic year credited on time. The main inhibitor preventing the respondents from learning at home during the ongoing pandemic was a lack of silence – quietness due to the noise of the siblings as well as remote work of the parents who had to perform their remote work during the students’ classes.

Keywords: education, students, Poland, COVID-19, e-learning

Kamila Ziółkowska-Weiss [kamila.ziolkowska-weiss@up.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography, Department of Tourism and Regional Studies Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków: Poland
Franciszek Mróz [franciszek.mroz@up.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography, Department of Tourism and Regional Studies Pedagogical University of Krakow Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków: Poland

Students in times of pandemic: Employment, living conditions, and health. Case studies from Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus

Zofia Kawczyńska-Butrym, Viktoriya Pantyley, Marek Butrym, Ganna Kisla, Liudmila Fakeyeva

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 3, pp. 429-440 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0213

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Abstract:

The article draws attention to the importance of gainful employment of students. The pandemic has largely limited such opportunities. Study objective: Determination of the scope in which students recognise limitation, its consequences for their plans regarding continuation of university education, life priorities and health self-assessment. The online survey involved the participation of a total of 380 students from Poland, Ukraine,and Belarus. Results: Demonstrated loss of employment, worsening of material situation, declared changes in plans of continuation of university education. Moreover, the respondents assessed their state of health as worse due to the occurrence or intensification of psychosomatic symptoms.

Keywords: student, COVID-19, employment, standard of living, health

Zofia Kawczyńska-Butrym [zofia.kawczynska-butrym@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl], Institute of Sociology Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin Maria Curie-Skłodowska, 4, 20-031 Lublin: Poland
Viktoriya Pantyley [wiktoria.pantylej@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl], Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin Kraśnicka, 2 cd, 20-718 Lublin: Poland
Marek Butrym [m.butrym@uksw.edu.pl], Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw Wóycickiego, 1/3, building 23, 01-938 Warsaw: Poland
Ganna Kisla [kisla.ann@gmail.com], Faculty of Socio-Economic Education National Pedagogical Dragomanov University, Kyiv Pyrogova, 9, 01-601 Kyiv: Ukraine
Liudmila Fakeyeva [fakeyeva@gmail.com], Faculty of International Relations Belarusian State University, Minsk Leningradskaya, 20, 220-030 Minsk: Belarus

Estimating the short-term economic impact of COVID-19 pandemic: A regional perspective

Zizi Goschin, Daniela-Luminita Constantin

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 3, pp. 441-457 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0214

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Abstract:

Given the economic crisis related to the current COVID-19 pandemic, decision makers need to better understand how to effectively allocate their limited resources to support the most severely affected regions. In this context our research seeks to identify the regions that are economically vulnerable, as well as those that are more resilient, using information on the industries negatively impacted by travel restrictions and social distancing measures. With this aim in view, we propose a vulnerability index calculated using regions’ location coefficients by activity and the forecasted decline of these activities at national level and test it for the Romanian economy. We argue that regional specialisation itself is not the source of the current problems, but the high dependence of many regional economies on economic activities directly affected by measures designed to mitigate the epidemic impact is the root cause of future economic decline.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, economic effects, regional specialisation, vulnerability index, Romania

Zizi Goschin [zizi.goschin@csie.ase.ro], Bucharest University of Economic Studies Piata Romana 6, sector 1, RO-010374 Bucharest: Romania; Institute of National Economy Calea 13 Septembrie 13, sector 5, RO-050731 Bucharest: Romania
Daniela-Luminita Constantin [daniela.constantin@amp.ase.ro], Bucharest University of Economic Studies Piata Romana 6, sector 1, RO-010374 Bucharest: Romania

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and the regional connectivity in West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

Syaiful Muazir, Lestari, Muhammad Ridha Alhamdani, Muhammad Nurhamsyah

Geographia Polonica (2021) vol. 94, iss. 3, pp. 459-478 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0215

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Abstract:

At the end of 2019, a disease was identified as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 or COVID-19. The expected modes of transmission are direct or indirect contact, droplets, and aerosol. The spread of an infection can be also caused by interaction between regions and the proximity to a central transmission area. This article elucidates the connectivity between regions in West Kalimantan in relation to the spreadof COVID-19 using network analysis, which shall be superimposed with the data pertaining to the spread of COVID-19. From the findings, Kubu Raya and Pontianak have a high number of COVID-19 cases, especially confirmed ones. Considering their centrality and block measurements, Kubu Raya is featured as region with the highest score (degree: 60.3; closeness: 71.4; betweenness: 75.6; and eigenvector: 82.4), close to Pontianakcity as the capital city. When regarded from the context of regional connectivity, both areas serve as the main ‘gateways’ and ‘hubs’. Additionally, the role of each region in urban hierarchy, the number of residentsand their proximity to one another also tend to affect the spread of COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, regional connectivity, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Syaiful Muazir [syaifulmuazir@teknik.untan.ac.id], Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering Tanjungpura University Pontianak: Indonesia
Lestari [lestari@teknik.untan.ac.id], Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering Tanjungpura University Pontianak: Indonesia
Muhammad Ridha Alhamdani [mridhaalhamdani@ teknik.untan.ac.id], Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering Tanjungpura University Pontianak: Indonesia
Muhammad Nurhamsyah [nurhamsyah@teknik.untan.ac.id], Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering Tanjungpura University Pontianak: Indonesia