Geographia Polonica (2022) vol. 95, iss. 1
Spatial diversity of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship (Poland), 2002-2019
Geographia Polonica (2022) vol. 95, iss. 1, pp. 5-23 | Full text
This research focuses on the spatial diversity of cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship (Poland) based on data from the PERUN lightning detection system, 2002-2019. The storm season usually lasts from May to September, with July having the highest number of thunderstorms days and flashes. Thunderstorms most often occur in the afternoon. A generated grid of 5×5-km cells was used to characterise the variables related to CG flashes. In the analysed period 432,925 CG flashes were detected in the voivodeship (24,051 flashes year-1). The highest electrical activity was found in the south-eastern part of the province. In grids with a large water surface, the number of CG flashes was small and increased with distance from the Vistula River. The distribution of atmospheric discharges in major cities of the region (Bydgoszcz, Toruń,Włocławek and Grudziądz) was random. Years with greater electrical storm activity (27,614 discharges in 2017) are interspersed with calmer years (5000-7000 discharges). There were found an upward trend in lightning discharges (of 1681 discharges year-1) during period 2002-2019. To develop maps specifying the number of thunderstorm days, a 1×1-km grid cell was used with a 15-km radius buffer from the bin centre. The annual number of thunderstorm days in the voivodeship fluctuates from 27 to 41 days and increases from north-westto south-east. Consecutive days with a thunderstorm, the most common runs are of three days in a row witha storm. The number of thunderstorm days shows an increasing trend (0.82 days year-1). This trend is related to the increase in air temperature in the storm season (Apr-Sep) reaching (0.04°C year-1).
Keywords: cloud-to-ground lightning, thunderstorm days, climate change, Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship, Poland
email@example.com], Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management Nicolaus Copernicus University Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management, Department of Meteorology and Climatology Nicolaus Copernicus University Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń: Poland
Changes in specific runoff in river catchments of Western Pomerania versus climate change
Geographia Polonica (2022) vol. 95, iss. 1, pp. 25-52 | Full text
This paper examines specific runoffs in the catchments of the rivers Ina, Rega, Parsęta, Radew and Wieprza in the hydrological years 1981 through 2019. The magnitude of specific runoff is an indirect measure of water resources in a given region. Except for the Radew catchment, mean annual specific runoffs have diminished in all the analyzed catchments through the study period. In some or all of the catchments, runoffs from April through July have also diminished. The largest changes have been observed for June in the In a and Parsętacatchments. These changes are basically due to the increase in air temperature.
Keywords: Pomeranian Lake District, Southern Baltic coastlands, temporal trends in river runoff, climate change effects, water resource depletion
email@example.com], Institute of Marine and Environmental Sciences University of Szczecin, ul. Mickiewicza 16, 70-383 Szczecin: Poland
, Institute of Marine and Environmental Sciences University of Szczecin, ul. Mickiewicza 16, 70-383 Szczecin: Poland
Long-term analysis of thermal comfort conditions during heat waves in Ukraine
Geographia Polonica (2022) vol. 95, iss. 1, pp. 53-70 | Full text
The aim of this study is assessment of thermal comfort conditions during heat waves in Ukraine in the years 1961-2015. The assessment is based on the thermal index Physiologically Equivalent Temperature. This study uses data from 29 meteorological stations across Ukraine. The research showed an increasing frequency of occurrence of heat waves (HWs) in the territory of Ukraine in the last decades. East and south Ukraine (except of coastal stations) experienced the most strenuous human-biometeorological conditions whilst HWs were recorded in the country. Lower mean PET values were found in Western region of the country. The obtained results suggest that the HW event of 2010 was the longest and the most strenuous HW in human-biometeorological terms since 1961.
Keywords: heat waves, human thermal comfort conditions, heat stress, physiologically equivalent temperature, Ukraine
firstname.lastname@example.org], Department of Meteorology and Climatology, Geography Faculty Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv: Ukraine
[email@example.com], Department of Meteorology and Climatology, Geography Faculty Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv: Ukraine
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Geography Faculty Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01 601 Kyiv: Ukraine
[email@example.com], Department of Meteorology and Climatology, Geography Faculty Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv: Ukraine
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Department of Meteorology and Climatology, Geography Faculty Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv: Ukraine
[email@example.com], Research Center for Human Biometeorology German Meteorological Service Stefan-Meier-Str. 4, 79 104 Freiburg: Germany; Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg Werthmannstrasse 10, D-79 085 Freiburg: Germany
Review of selected esthetical and economical landscape valorisation methods and assessments
Geographia Polonica (2022) vol. 95, iss. 1, pp. 71-96 | Full text
Human activities have brought major changes to landscape, as a result of the expansion of settlements, and other activities. The need to valorise the landscape for the requirements of current and future activities results from the more and more limited space, which in itself becomes an important resource, which should be properly valorised and then shaped. The literature presents a wide variety of landscape valorisation and assessment methods used for various aspects of economic or scientific purposes. However, there is no universal method. This review article summarises selected diverse methods used for valorisation, assessmentand economic valuation of the landscape.
Keywords: landscape, landscape valorisation, methods of landscape research, landscape value, landscape assessment
firstname.lastname@example.org], Institute of Geography and Regional Development University of Wroclaw, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Environmental Management Pl. Uniwersytecki 1, 50-137 Wroclaw: Poland[
Continental-scale monthly thermal anomalies in Europe during the years 1951-2018 and their occurrence in relation to atmospheric circulation
Geographia Polonica (2022) vol. 95, iss. 1, pp. 97-116 | Full text
This study determines the frequency, location and spatial extent of such large-area monthly thermal anomalies,which are referred to in this paper as continental-scale thermal anomalies (CTAs). The research was based on monthly mean air temperature values from 210 weather stations over the 68-year period 1951-2018. A CTAis defined as an anomaly when the monthly mean temperature exceeded the long-term average by at least 2 standard deviations at a minimum of 40 stations. This study attempts to explain the occurrence of such CTAs (negative CTAs- and positive CTAs+) in relation to the circulation conditions over Europe. In the years 1951-2018, there were 16 CTAs- (mainly in winter and autumn) and 25 CTAs+ (predominantly in summer). One manifestation of climate warming is the ever less frequent occurrence of CTAs- and a growing frequencyand spatial extent of CTAs+. The immediate cause behind CTAs was the occurrence of characteristic synoptic situations, leading to intensified advection of cold or hot air masses, often driven by radiation factors. The formation of CTAs- was much more often associated with very extensive and long-lasting anticyclonicsystems, and that the associated synoptic situations over Europe lasted much longer than in the case of CTAs+.
Keywords: contemporary warming, extreme temperatures, warm months, cold months, mean sea level pressure, Europe
email@example.com], Faculty of Geography and Geology, Jagiellonian University Gronostajowa str. 7, 30-387 Kraków: Poland
[firstname.lastname@example.org], Institute of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences University of Silesia in Katowice Będzińska str. 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec: Poland