Geographia Polonica (2001) vol. 74, iss. 1

Articles

Intermediate layers in the knowledge-economy system

Ryszard Domański

Geographia Polonica (2001) vol. 74, iss. 1, pp. 5-20 | Full text

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Abstract:

The knowledge-economy system is so complicated that its description and analysis with the help of the calculus of correlations between inputs and outputs can only yield approximate results. These can be useful when arguing for an increase in research and development outlays, but tend to be disputed when passing from correlations to a cause-and-effect analysis, as critics demand elucidation of relationships between inputs and the outputs. The present author is of the opinion that the most practical way of solving this problem is to identify the structure of the model mapping the knowledge-economy system. If data necessary for a deterministic approach to modelling are missing, a probabilistic approach employing Markov chains be found to be useful. In the final part, the author suggests using neural networks, which make it possible to expand correlation links and hence to enlarge the basis of explanatory reasoning.

Keywords: knowledge-economy system, identification of model structure, intermediate layers of system, probabilities of change in system states, effects of changes in states

Ryszard Domański, Academy of Economics Poznań, Department of Spatial and Environmental Economics al. Niepodległości 10, 60-967 Poznań, Poland

Environment and planning, or possible approaches to the environment in physical planning

Jerzy J. Parysek, Lidia Mierzejewska

Geographia Polonica (2001) vol. 74, iss. 1, pp. 21-28 | Full text

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Abstract:

The natural environment and its place in physical planning can be approached in a variety of ways. In an extreme case, the environment can be treated as the subject matter of a plan; alternatively, it can be one of the elements constituting the subject of planning. It can be treated as material defining the spatial framework of development, or as its factor and limitation, etc. The way we approach the environment depends primarily on how we under-stand the nature-man relationship, and what model of the operation and development of nature we adopt. Two such models can be considered: (1) of the autonomous development of nature, and (2) of controlled nature-man interactions. In the latter, two types of interaction are involved: of the spatial integration or spatial separation of nature and man. These assumptions can underlie various approaches to the environment; their elucidation is the subject matter of the present paper.

Keywords: natural environment, physical planning, nature-man relationship

Jerzy J. Parysek, Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Space Economy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań, Poland
Lidia Mierzejewska, Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Space Economy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań, Poland

Mortality in Warsaw: is there any connection with weather and air pollution?

Magdalena Kuchcik

Geographia Polonica (2001) vol. 74, iss. 1, pp. 29-45 | Full text

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Abstract:

City inhabitants are becoming more and more sensitive to weather changes and extreme atmospheric events. According to certain scientific reports mortality from cardiovas-cular and respiratory diseases is associated with oppressive weather conditions. In the years 1994-1995 a significant rise in mortality was found for Warsaw when particularly hot weather conditions, characteristic of a subtropical air mass, occurred. A synoptic approach in this type of research has been confirmed, and consideration of the influence of combined meteorological parameters on humans (via a biometeorological index) is seen to be much more fruitful and justified than using separate meteorological parameters in calculations.

Keywords: mortality, weather, air pollution, Warsaw

Magdalena Kuchcik [mkuchcik@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Problem areas in Poland's agriculture

Jerzy Bański

Geographia Polonica (2001) vol. 74, iss. 1, pp. 47-63 | Full text

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Abstract:

In the author's opinion an agricultural problem area is characterized by an accumulation of negative socioeconomic and (or) natural phenomena handicapping it in comparison with agricultural areas of characteristics average for the country, and weakening its agricultural function. They are associated with disturbing demographic phenomena like the depopulation of villages, migration and the ageing of the owners of farms. Other equally unfavourable processes are the extensification of output, the laying fallow of large areas of land and a lack of interest in farm enlargement.A division of agricultural problem areas into 4 types may be proposed: 1) areas backward in their development, 2) areas of productive reserves, 3) areas of unfavourable natural condi-tions, 4) conflict areas. These areas are concentrated in just a few regions of Poland - the south-east, the eastern part of Mazowsze and the north-east, the area of the Sudetic Mountains and part of the Silesian Lowland, small areas in Pomerania, the Świętokrzyskie Mountains and Upper Silesia.

Keywords: agricultural problem areas, Poland's agriculture, backward areas

Jerzy Bański [jbanski@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

Unsustainable forestry causes forest fires. A case study from Galicia (North-West Spain)

Thomas Held, Kathrin Montero Küpper

Geographia Polonica (2001) vol. 74, iss. 1, pp. 65-76 | Full text

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Abstract:

Galicia's forestry holds a special position within Spain due to the relatively great cover of woodlands and an increasing concentration on fast-growing tree species, i.e. eucalyptus trees. Its earning capacity is rather low because of a lack of industrial potential. Development funds allocated by the EU and altered by national and regional legislatures do not improve the disadvantagous structure of Galician forestry and its economically and ecologically poor situation. The high incidence of forest fires is a result of a misguided forestry policy and structural problems. The especially-formed fire brigades are only of short-term assistance. In future, long-term support can be expected via EU-funded eductional campaigns and structural reforms.

Keywords: Spain, Galicia, forestry, forestry policy, EU structural policy, eucalyptus trees, forest fire

Changes in the role and permeability of Polish borders

Tomasz Komornicki

Geographia Polonica (2001) vol. 74, iss. 1, pp. 77-100 | Full text

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Abstract:

The degree of openness, and thus the permeability and the functions, of Po-land's borders has changed fundamentally in the last seven years, as has the intensity of the traffic crossing them. The aim of this study was to define the degree of advancement of the process of functional change on Poland's borders as a whole, and in reference to the sections of border with particular neighbours. As element in this was the description of trends to the changes in the intensity and structure of border traffic in the years 1990-1999. In summing up the analysis carried out in this study a ranking of the permeability of borders wai prepared. It has been found that - in both of the studied time intervals (1990 and 1996) - the highest places were mostly taken by the German border, while the border with the Kalingrad District was consistently the worst on average. Between 1990 and 1996, the border improving its position as regards permeability to the greatest degree was that with Lithuania.

Keywords: borders, permeability, barriers, border functions

Tomasz Komornicki [t.komorn@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00‑818 Warsaw: Poland

Evaporation in Wroclaw and its vari-ability in the years 1946-1995

Krystyna Bryś, Tadeusz Bryś

Geographia Polonica (2001) vol. 74, iss. 1, pp. 101-121 | Full text

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Abstract:

The Authors present the results of a statistical-climatological study of evapora-tion from the water surface in Wrocław and its variability in the years 1946-1995. The evaporation was characterized by year-to-year variability in the annual, half-year and monthly sums and the multi-year trends were determined mathematically with the help of linear and polynomial trends of the 3rd and 6th degrees. The trends were compared with the long-inter-val tendencies for the basic factors controlling evaporation, i.e. with saturation deficit, solar global radiation and wind velocity. The "variability of variability" was taken into consider-ation and multi-year periods of relative stabilization and extinction of amplitude fluctuations separated and contrasted with intervals of increased fluctuational dynamics. The analysis points to the occurrence of 8, 10-11, 16 and 21-23-year evaporation rhythms. The overall findings were investigated in the context of solar activity (Wolfs number) and of multi-year circulation changes in Poland.

Keywords: evaporation from water surface, Wild's balance-evaporimeter, factors control-ling evaporation, multi-year variability, solar activity, atmospheric circulation

Krystyna Bryś, Department of Agro- and Hydrometeorology, Agricultural University at Wrocław, Plac Grunwaldzki 24, 50-363 Wrocław, Poland
Tadeusz Bryś, Department of Agro- and Hydrometeorology, Agricultural University at Wrocław, Plac Grunwaldzki 24, 50-363 Wrocław, Poland

Book review

Haupstadt Belin. Sues Werner (ed.), vol.1-3. Berlin 1995

Ewa Korcelli-Olejniczak

Geographia Polonica (2001) vol. 74, iss. 1, pp. 123-124 | Full text

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Keywords:

Ewa Korcelli-Olejniczak [eko@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland