Geographia Polonica (2014) vol. 87, iss. 4

Articles

Urban climate research in Warsaw: the results of microclimatic network measurements

Magdalena Kuchcik, Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Paweł Milewski, Jakub Szmyd

Geographia Polonica (2014) vol. 87, iss. 4, pp. 491-504 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2014.33

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Abstract:

The paper presents some aspects of Warsaw’s climate, in particular the urban heat island. UHI changesin different seasons and in different air mass types were analysed over the years 2011-2012. Average UHI in Warsaw is of a diamond shape which reflects the distribution of the densest built area and exceeds 2.0°Cin the city centre compared to the airport station. In subtropical air mass, the intensity of UHI on the leftside of the Vistula River reached 7.7°C. The basis for the analysis is the microclimatic measurement network of 28 permanent points in Warsaw and its surroundings, operated by IGSO PAS and completed by data from 7 other stations. This dense network became the IGSO PAS’ input into an UHI project titled ‘Development and application of mitigation and adaptation strategies and measures for counteracting the global Urban HeatIslands phenomenon (UHI)’ implemented through the Central Europe Program and co-financed by the ERDF.

Keywords: city climate, network of microclimatic measurements, urban heat island, Warsaw

Magdalena Kuchcik [mkuchcik@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Paweł Milewski [pmilewski@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Jakub Szmyd [j.szmyd@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Empirical and computational assessment of the Urban Heat Island phenomenon and related mitigation measures

Ardeshir Mahdavi, Kristina Kiesel, Milena Vuckovic

Geographia Polonica (2014) vol. 87, iss. 4, pp. 505-516 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2014.34

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Abstract:

A central strand of research work in the realm of urban physics aims at a better understanding of the variancein microclimatic conditions due to factors such as building agglomeration density, anthropogenic heatproduction, traffic intensity, presence and extent of green areas and bodies of water, etc. This research has been motivated in part by phenomena associated with climate change and urban heat islands (UHI) and their implications for the urban microclimate. Note that the characteristics and evolution of the urban microclimate is not only relevant to people’s experience of outdoor thermal conditions in the cities. It can be argued that the solid understanding of the temporal and spatial variance of urban microclimate represents a prerequisite for the reliable assessment of the thermal performance of buildings (energy requirements, indoor thermal conditions). In this context, the present paper entails a three-fold contribution. First, the existence and extent of the UHI phenomena are documented for a number of Central-European cities. Second, a number of variables of the urban environment are identified that are hypothesized to influence UHI and the urban microclimatevariance. These variables, which pertain to both geometric (morphological) and semantic (material-related) urban features are captured within a formal and systematic framework. Third, to support the process of designand evaluation of UHI mitigation measures, the potential of both numerical (simulation-based) applicationsand empirically-based urban microclimate models are explored.

Keywords: urban climate, urban heat island, mitigation measure, modeling, evaluation

Ardeshir Mahdavi, Department of Building Physics and Building Ecology Vienna University of Technology Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna: Austria
Kristina Kiesel, Department of Building Physics and Building Ecology Vienna University of Technology Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna: Austria
Milena Vuckovic, Department of Building Physics and Building Ecology Vienna University of Technology Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna: Austria

UHI effect in the city of Padua: simulations and mitigation strategies using the Rayman and Envimet models

Marco Noro, Filippo Busato, Renato M. Lazzarin

Geographia Polonica (2014) vol. 87, iss. 4, pp. 517-530 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2014.35

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Abstract:

The UHI phenomenon was studied in a medium size city in the North-East of Italy and the results are reported in this paper. Experimental measurements were carried out during the summer of 2012, measuring the main thermo-hygrometric variables by mobile survey and also the mean radiant temperature in characteristic sites of the city area: the historic centre, high and low density populated residential zones, the industrial zone and the rural zone. Two simulation models were used in order to calculate the effect of some mitigation strategieson UHI intensity and outdoor thermal comfort indexes for four typical days of the year.

Keywords: medium size cities, mean radiant temperature, mitigation strategy, outdoor thermal comfort simulations, urban heat island

Marco Noro, Department of Management and Engineering University of Padua Stradella S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza: Italy
Filippo Busato, Department of Management and Engineering University of Padua Stradella S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza: Italy
Renato M. Lazzarin, Department of Management and Engineering University of Padua Stradella S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza: Italy

Impact of mitigation measures on the Urban Heat Island phenomenon within the city of Modena, Italy

Stefano Marchesi, Stefano Zauli-Sajani, Paolo Lauriola

Geographia Polonica (2014) vol. 87, iss. 4, pp. 531-540 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2014.36

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Abstract:

Urban planners are increasingly paying more attention to the topic of UHI. Within the framework of the EU-UHI Project, an industrial area inside the municipality of Modena was selected as a pilot-area for the Emilia-Romagna Region. In this paper we present some results obtained with RayMan, a model which estimates bioclimatic discomfort based on the human radiative budget. Some simulations of the impact of mitigation measures have been carried out, taking into account the insertion of greenery and building modifications. Both intra-diurnal and whole day effects have been compared.

Keywords: thermal discomfort, bioclimatic indices, urban planning, mitigation strategies

Stefano Marchesi, Arpa Emilia-Romagna Centro Tematico Ambiente e Salute Via A. Begarelli 13, 41121 Modena: Italy
Stefano Zauli-Sajani, Arpa Emilia-Romagna Centro Tematico Ambiente e Salute Via A. Begarelli 13, 41121 Modena: Italy
Paolo Lauriola, Arpa Emilia-Romagna Centro Tematico Ambiente e Salute Via A. Begarelli 13, 41121 Modena: Italy

Creation of experimental urban indices in order to estimate the environmental performance of urban/building regenerations

Filippo Bonazzi, Marcello Capucci, Alberto Muscio, Catia Rizzo

Geographia Polonica (2014) vol. 87, iss. 4, pp. 541-554 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2014.37

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Abstract:

Identifying indices to measure the multiple environmental effects of urban transformations is the battle line for the urban planners. To tackle this need the Municipality of Modena (Italy) has defined a set of parameters focused on three main phenomena: the Urban Heat Island, energy requirements and hydraulic risk. The indicesare capable of measuring the effects, vouching for the achievement of the planning targets and estimating the benefit-cost ratio. The paper describes the pilot actions of the CE program’s project UHI realized in the framework of the Plan of Urban Redevelopment of the ‘Villaggio Artigiano’ (POC.MO.W, Modena).

Keywords: urb an heat island, urban environmental indices, environmental sustainability, urban planning

Filippo Bonazzi, Municipality of Modena Via Santi, 60, 41123 Modena: Italy
Marcello Capucci, Municipality of Modena Via Santi, 60, 41123 Modena: Italy
Alberto Muscio, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Via Universita 4, 41121 Modena: Italy
Catia Rizzo, Municipality of Modena Via Santi, 60, 41123 Modena: Italy

Remote sensing of urban micro-climate with special reference to Urban Heat Island island using Landsat thermal data

Ram Babu Singh, Aakriti Grover

Geographia Polonica (2014) vol. 87, iss. 4, pp. 555-568 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2014.38

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Abstract:

Remote sensing studies have shown that urban areas have unique environmental, climatic, land use/cover characteristics as a result of intense anthropogenic activities. Consequently, urban areas have developed distinct micro-climate and elevated temperatures. Thermal remote sensing data has been widely used to study these characteristics. In this study, an attempt has been made to review the studies involving Landsat remote sensing dataset for investigating land surface temperature. Landsat is oldest finer resolution thermal dataset, which has been effectively used in mapping and analysis of land surface temperature, urban heat island and urban micro-climate. Since 1978, it has been providing thermal data through Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) sensors.

Keywords: land surface temperature, urbanisation, Landsat thermal data, surface urban heat island

Ram Babu Singh, University of Delhi Department of Geography, Delhi School of Economics Delhi-110007: India
Aakriti Grover, University of Delhi Department of Geography, Swami Shraddhanand College Delhi-110036: India

Varia

The people of Geographia Polonica, 1964-2013

Przemysław Śleszyński, Piotr Siłka, Beata Zielińska

Geographia Polonica (2014) vol. 87, iss. 4, pp. 569-586 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2014.39

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Abstract:

The article described the activities and the effects of successive editorial offices of Geographia Polonica from its foundation in 1964 to the present. The topics of the contents of the periodical were analyzed and information compiled on the structure and the qualitative characteristics of the published materials, including an analysis of the geographic origins of the authors. Information regarding the editors and the editorial bodies were collected and the editorial-publishing changes were analyzed. Finally, the challenges to be faced by the editorial office in the coming years, connected with the periodical’s profile and its influence, were identified.

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Przemysław Śleszyński [psleszyn@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00‑818 Warsaw: Poland
Piotr Siłka [psilka@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Beata Zielińska [b.ziel@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Urban heat island atlas: a web tool for the determination and mitigation of Urban Heat Island effects

Blaž Komac, Rok Ciglič

Geographia Polonica (2014) vol. 87, iss. 4, pp. 587-591 | Full text

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Abstract:

Within the framework of the EU Central-Europe project: ‘Development and applicationof mitigation and adaptation strategiesand measures for counteracting the global urban heat islands phenomenon (UHI)’,a data base and web atlas was prepared. The Urban Heat Island Atlas was produced by the Anton Melik Geographical Institute, ZRCSAZU. The database was elaborated in the GIS environment using Arcgis Desktop andpublished online using the Arcgis server programmeat http://giam.zrc-sazu.si/uhi_atlas.

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Blaž Komac, Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (ZRC SAZU) Anton Melik Geographical Institute Novi trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana: Slovenia
Rok Ciglič, Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (ZRC SAZU) Anton Melik Geographical Institute Novi trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana: Slovenia