Krzysztof Błażejczyk

Articles

Regional features of the bioclimate of Central and Southern Europe against the background of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification

Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Jarosław Baranowski, Gerd Jendritzky, Anna Błażejczyk, Peter Bröde, Dusan Fiala

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3, pp. 439-453 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0027

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Abstract:

This paper presents an application of the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI to studies of regional variability in human-biometeorological conditions. The variability in question was assessed by reference to selected meteorological stations representing Central and Southern Europe, i.e. Kołobrzeg, Warsaw and Świeradów (in Poland), Prague, Budapest, Ljubljana, Milan, Rome and Athens, with the bioclimatic features characterising these localities being presented against the background of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. In line with that classification, the first five stations are found to represent the cold climate zones (Dfb, Dfc). The last four stations are in turn located in the temperate climate zones (Cfa, Cfb, Csa). Seasonal changes in UTCI values and the frequency of occurrence of UTCI categories are discussed. Significant regional differences in bioclimatic characteristics were found between the stations representing various types of climate. While the highest summer values for UTCI are very similar at all stations (39-42°C), the frequency of occurrence of days with at least strong heat stress (SHS) varied from 2% at the coastal station of Kołobrzeg in Poland to more than 50% at the Milan, Rome and Athens stations. In winter the lowest UTCI values are much differentiated regionally, from -54°C at the mountain station in Świeradów, Poland,to -22°C in Rome. In the zone of cold climate, the frequency of occurrence of days with at least strong coldstress (SCS) is >40%, while in the temperate climates, strong cold stress is characteristic of less than 2% of winter days.

Keywords: human bioclimate, Universal Thermal Climate Index, Köppen-Geiger climate classification, seasonal and regional variability of bioclimate

Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Jarosław Baranowski [j.bar@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Peter Bröde, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) Ardeystr 67, D-44139 Dortmund: Germany
Dusan Fiala, ErgonSim-Comfort Energy Efficiency Holderbuschweg 47, D-70563 Stuttgart: Germany

Urban climate research in Warsaw: the results of microclimatic network measurements

Magdalena Kuchcik, Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Paweł Milewski, Jakub Szmyd

Geographia Polonica (2014) vol. 87, iss. 4, pp. 491-504 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2014.33

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The paper presents some aspects of Warsaw’s climate, in particular the urban heat island. UHI changesin different seasons and in different air mass types were analysed over the years 2011-2012. Average UHI in Warsaw is of a diamond shape which reflects the distribution of the densest built area and exceeds 2.0°Cin the city centre compared to the airport station. In subtropical air mass, the intensity of UHI on the leftside of the Vistula River reached 7.7°C. The basis for the analysis is the microclimatic measurement network of 28 permanent points in Warsaw and its surroundings, operated by IGSO PAS and completed by data from 7 other stations. This dense network became the IGSO PAS’ input into an UHI project titled ‘Development and application of mitigation and adaptation strategies and measures for counteracting the global Urban HeatIslands phenomenon (UHI)’ implemented through the Central Europe Program and co-financed by the ERDF.

Keywords: city climate, network of microclimatic measurements, urban heat island, Warsaw

Magdalena Kuchcik [mkuchcik@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Paweł Milewski [pmilewski@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Jakub Szmyd [j.szmyd@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

An introduction to the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)

Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Gerd Jendritzky, Peter Bröde, Dusan Fiala, George Havenith, Yoram Epstein, Agnieszka Psikuta, Bernhard Kampmann

Geographia Polonica (2013) vol. 86, iss. 1, pp. 5-10 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2013.1

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Abstract:

The assessment of the thermal environment is one of the main issues in bioclimatic research, and more than 100 simple bioclimaticindices have thus far been developed to facilitate it. However, most of these indices have proved to be of limited applicability,and do not portray the actual impacts of thermal conditions on human beings. Indices derived from human heatbalancemodels (one- or two-node) have been found to offer a better representation of the environmental impact in questionthan do simple ones. Indeed, the new generation of multi-node models for human heat balance do allow full account to betaken of heat transfer and exchange, both within the human body and between the body surface and the surrounding airlayer. In this paper, it is essential background information regarding the newly-developed Universal Thermal Climate IndexUTCI that is presented, this in fact deriving from the Fiala multi-node model of human heatbalance. The UTCI is definedas the air temperature (Ta) of the reference condition causing the same model response as actual conditions. UTCI wasdeveloped in 2009 by virtue of international co-operation between leading experts in the areas of human thermophysiology,physiological modelling, meteorology and climatology. The necessary research for this had been conducted within theframework of a special commission of the International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) and European COST Action 730.

Keywords: UTCI, human heat balance, multi-node model, bioclimatic index, International Society of Biometeorology, COST Action 730

Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Peter Bröde, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) Ardeystr 67, D-44139 Dortmund: Germany
Dusan Fiala, ErgonSim-Comfort Energy Efficiency Holderbuschweg 47, D-70563 Stuttgart: Germany
Agnieszka Psikuta, Empa – a Research Institute of the ETH Domain Laboratory for Physiology and Protection Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen: Switzerland;

Lighting characteristics during the polar day and their impact on changes in melatonin secretion

Joanna Wieczorek, Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Takeshi Morita

Geographia Polonica (2013) vol. 86, iss. 1, pp. 67-75 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2013.8

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People traveling between climate zones can be exposed to extreme environmental stimuli which significantly differ fromtheir place of habitual residence. A move from the temperate climate of Central Europe to the subpolar climate ofnorthern Europe means exposure to great changes in two climate parameters: lighting and biothermal characteristics.The sudden change of solar radiation, temperature, wind and humidity, force the organism to undergo intensive adaptationprocesses. While the change in lighting conditions involves a diurnal rhythm adaptation of the physiological clock(regulated by the hormone melatonin), the change of biothermal factors (represented by UTCI) produce additional stresson the strongly loaded human organism. The field experiment was carried out in Poland and Norway so the impact ofthe selected radiation stimuli on melatonin production could be carried out in conditions of natural constant lighting.The paper presents the results of the preliminary analysis of our research conducted from 22 May to 12 June 2011. Thedistribution of daily outdoor photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity, which is a spectral distribution of solarvisible radiation in selected times of the day were analyzed. Lighting conditions surrounding each subject (doses ofreached energy of visible solar radiation and illumination intensity) were examined as well. Additional adaptation stresscaused by different biothermal conditions (expressed by UTCI index) was also taken into consideration. Diurnal melatoninconcentrations were determined in saliva samples.

Keywords: UTCI, adaptation, diurnal rhythm, lighting conditions, melatonin (MEL), polar day

Joanna Wieczorek, University of Warsaw College of Interfaculty Individual Studies in Mathematics and Natural Sciences Żwirki i Wigury 93, 02-089 Warsaw: Poland
Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Poland on maps

Distribution of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) in Warsaw

Krzysztof Błażejczyk

Geographia Polonica (2013) vol. 86, iss. 1, pp. 79-80 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2013.9

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Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Articles

Changes in UV radiation intensity and their possible impact on skin cancer in Poland

Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Anna Błażejczyk

Geographia Polonica (2012) vol. 85, iss. 2, pp. 57-64 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2012.2.11

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UV radiation is a high-energy part of sunlight. Simultaneous changes in global radiation have been observed duringrecent decades. Close relationships have been found between UV intensity near ground level and the destruction of thestratospheric ozone layer known as the ozone hole. This has great consequences for all ecological systems on Earth aswell as for human health. The UV Index (UVI) was developed for the monitoring of the level and composition of UV raysreaching the lower troposphere. The paper presents changes in the UVI in Poland in the period 1996-2011. We also discussthe possible influence of changes in level of ultraviolet radiation (represented by UVI) on the frequency of skin cancer.

Keywords: UV radiation, UVI, skin cancer, Poland, climate change

Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Assessment of bioclimatic differentiation of Poland based on the human heat balance

Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Andreas Matzarakis

Geographia Polonica (2007) vol. 80, iss. 1, pp. 63-82 | Full text

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The paper presents general features of the bioclimate of Poland and discusses theirseasonal and spatial differentiation. Special attention is paid to biothermal indices (PhysiologicalSubjective Temperature—PST, Physiological Strain—PhS, Physiological Equivalent Temperature—PET and Weather Suitability Index—WSI) derived from the human heat balance modelsMENEX_2005 and MEMI. Climatic and biothermal indices were used to distinguish eight bioclimaticregions in Poland. WSI was also applied in defining bioclimatic weather seasons, and PETto illustrate seasonal differentiation in biothermal conditions over Polish territory. The presentresults augment bioclimatic research with a detailed analysis of physiologically significant interactionsbetween humankind and the environment.

Keywords: bioclimate, bioclimatic regionalization, biothermal indices (PST, PhS, PET and WSI), human heat balance

Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

The main features of bioclimatic conditions at Polish health resorts

Teresa Kozłowska-Szczęsna, Barbara Krawczyk, Krzysztof Błażejczyk

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 45-61 | Full text

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Climate-related treatment is one form of therapy at health resorts that bases itself around the use of natural climatic attributes. In the light of this, the aim of the present studies has been to analyse the bioclimatic conditions at different Polish health resorts, with a view to the available curative resources of the climate being determined, along with the opportunities for the different forms of climatotherapy to be taken advantage of.

Keywords: bioclimate, climatotherapy, health resorts, Poland

Teresa Kozłowska-Szczęsna [klimat@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Barbara Krawczyk [b.kraw@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Preface

Editorial

Magdalena Kuchcik, Krzysztof Błażejczyk

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 5-7 | Full text

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Magdalena Kuchcik [mkuchcik@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Articles

Radiation balance in man in various meteorological and geographical conditions

Krzysztof Błażejczyk

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 63-76 | Full text

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Solar radiation is a very important factor influencing human beings, in that it plays a significant role in the human heat balance. Bioclimatic and thermophysiological research makes use of various ways by which to assess absorbed solar radiation (ASR), as an essential part of the radiation balance in man (Q). Previous research based either on theoretical considerations or on experimental studies has used different analogue models of the human being as either a vertical cylinder or on ellipsoid. The present paper discusses the results of experimental studies on solar radiation absorption with absorbed fractions of solar radiation being measured on a mannequin. Depending on the kind of radiation data, three models were proposed for assessing ASR. The accuracy of the models was verified by direct measurements made on subjects.

Keywords: absorbed solar radiation, radiation balance of humans, skin temperature

Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Book review

Hands-on meteorology. Stories, theories and simple experiments. Zbigniew Sorbjan. Norman (Oklahoma) 1996, Warszawa 2001

Krzysztof Błażejczyk

Geographia Polonica (2001) vol. 74, iss. 2, pp. 93-94 | Full text

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Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Articles

Recent bioclimatological studies in Poland

Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Teresa Kozłowska-Szczęsna, Barbara Krawczyk

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 37-50 | Full text

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The study presents the results of bioclimatic investigations carried out in Department of Climatology of the Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The aims of this research involve evaluation and regionalization of a bioclimate of Poland in different spatial scales from the point of view of climatotherapeutical and recreational potential as well as work under an open air. Bioclimatic weather classification and human heat balance method were used in this study.

Keywords: bioclimatic mapping, weather classsifications, human heat balance

Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Teresa Kozłowska-Szczęsna [klimat@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Barbara Krawczyk [b.kraw@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

A model for bioclimatic evaluation and typology of health resorts and recreation areas. Concept of a method

Krzysztof Błażejczyk

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 141-149 | Full text

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Applied climatology has perceived a clear need of objective evaluation and typologyof climates for specific purposes. Bioclimatology, too, is in need of ways to objectivelyevaluate geographical environment in health resorts for their usefulness for recreationand climatotherapy.The paper presents an attempt to employ simple mathematical and physical modelsfor evaluation of bioclimatic conditions of a given area and typology of selectedfacilities. Data collected from 1961 till 1970 from 19 Polish health resorts, located indifferent bioclimatic conditions, were used to check functioning of the model (Fig. 1).The descriptive method and quality classification are the most frequently usedtechniques in evaluation of bioclimatic conditions. Their chief deficiency, however, isthat they are too subjective. Technique of terrain evaluation which would involve amodel has been rarely employed so far, the first such attempts being one by Warszyńska (1973) — from the point of view of tourism, and Błażejczyk (1980 a, b, 1983) — forbioclimatology.Comprehensive bioclimatic evaluation of health resorts and recreation areas shouldtake into account not only general climatic conditions, but also other components ofgeographical environment, which perceivably modify the local dimate. They include inthe first place, relief and land organization.

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Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland