Kazimierz Klimek

Articles

Climatic nad human impact on episodic alluviation in small mountain valleys, The Sudetes

Kazimierz Klimek, Ireneusz Malik, Piotr Owczarek, Edyta Zygmunt

Geographia Polonica (2003) vol. 76, iss. 2, pp. 55-64 | Full text

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Abstract:

The Sudetes are a mid-mountain range located in the temperate climatic zone of Central Europe. Deep valley sides are covered with a thick mantle of peri-glacial regolith. Migrating cyclones cause intensive rainstorms, debris flow and floods. Geomorphological and sedimentological traces of a previous large flood have been found in the upper course of the Bila Opava and Bela valley floors, which drain the northern slope of the Hruby Jesenik massif, 1000-1400 m a. s. 1. Dendrochronological investigation has shown that this large flood took place around the turn of the 20th century. Meteorolo-gical archival records have confirmed that extremely heavy precipitation occurred here on 9 July 1903.The periglacial regolith covering the steep, deforested slopes were the source of the coarse-grained clastic material supplied into the Bila Opava and Bela river beds.

Keywords: climatic and human impact, mountain valleys, alluviation, braided river pattern, Sudetes

Kazimierz Klimek, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Ireneusz Malik, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Piotr Owczarek, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland.University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Edyta Zygmunt, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland

Historic slope degradation above timberline in the Balkan Mts., Bulgaria

Kazimierz Klimek

Geographia Polonica (1992) vol. 60, pp. 43-50 | Full text

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Climatic amelioration in the Holocene resulted in a rise of the upper timberline in the Balkan Mts. (Stara Planina) up to 1800-1950 m a.s.l. Incorporation of the Balkan Peninsula in the Turkish Empire in the 14/15 centuries has opened the Muslim markets for mutton, skin and wool. As a result of grazing pressure, the upper timberline has been lowered by several hundred metres over the last 4-5 centuries. This exposed Pleistocene slope deposits to contemporary geomorphic processes. The results of these processes occur over the entire area above the timberline, but are in particular well developed between 1500-1700 m a.s.l. on slopes which were formerly afforested.In these areas small slumps or landslides are very common on fine grained slope deposits. On the debris-loamy slope deposits semi-circular niches, 5-8 m long, are common. As a result of upslope enlarging and capturing of adjacent niches, the grass ridges separating them become isolated "monadnocks". In the areas underlain by shales, on slopes with gradients exceeding 30°, soil slides are particularly common.Processes of slope degradation caused by the overgrazing exhibit various stages of development. Some areas are characterized by fresh relief forms, other by more subdued forms which are progressively colonized by vegetation.

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Kazimierz Klimek, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland

Polish studies in physical geography in Mongolia 1974-1980

Kazimierz Klimek

Geographia Polonica (1984) vol. 50, pp. 329-344 | Full text

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The idea of studies in physical geography in Mongolia was born in Polandearly in the sixties (Klimek et al. 1976a. b). However, it took ten years before theformal grounds enabling their realization came into existence. Those were agreementson joint research in physical geography carried out in 1974 and 1976 betweenthe Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciencesand the Institute of Geography and Geocryology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences.On these grounds there were organized two Mongolian-Polish Physical GeographyExpeditions: The KHANGAI in 1974-1975 and the TRANSMONGOLIA in 1976-1980. Both expeditions were organized by the Institute of Geography and SpatialOrganization Polish Academy of Sciences — Department of Physical Geography inKraków and were headed by Professor Kazimierz Klimek. About 70 researchworkers participated in both expeditions. Apart from the Institute of Geographyand Spatial Organization. Polish Academy of Sciences, they represented the followinginstitutions: the Nature and Natural Resources Protection Research Center. PolishAcademy of Sciences (Kraków), Jagiellonian University (Kraków), University ofMining and Metallurgy (Kraków), University of Agriculture (Kraków), High PedagogicSchool (Kraków), Adam Mickiewicz University (Poznań), Mikołaj KopernikUniversity (Toruń), Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (Lublin), Warsaw University(Warszawa). Forest Research Institute (Warszawa).

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Kazimierz Klimek, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland

Geomorphological evidence of Holocene climatic changes in Northern Mongolia

Kazimierz Klimek

Geographia Polonica (1980) vol. 43, pp. 101-111 | Full text

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Abstract:

Changes of climate which occurred in Central Asia during the Upper Quaternary, and the resultant geomorphological and sedimentological effects are only briefly mentioned in publications (Murzayeva et al., 1971; Ravskiy 1972; Gravis and Lisun 1974; Murzayeva et al. 1973). In the detailed consideration of events in both their regional distribution and their chronological order (paleo-geographical aspect) many unresolved questions still remain. One of the problems is that of the changes of Holocene climate.This paper provides a paleoclimatic interpretation of the results of both geomorphological and sedimentological research made in Northern Mongolia during three summers, 1976-1978. The areas of study were in the major valleys of the Selenga-Orkhon mountains of intermediate height.

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Kazimierz Klimek, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland

Research problems of the First Mongolian-Polish Physical Geographical Expedition to the Khangay Mts. in 1974

Kazimierz Klimek, Radnarin Lomborintchen, Leszek Starkel, Tsesemin Sugar

Geographia Polonica (1976) vol. 33 1, pp. 107-120 | Full text

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Kazimierz Klimek, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Radnarin Lomborintchen, Institute of Geography and Geocryology Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan Bator
Leszek Starkel, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland
Tsesemin Sugar, Institute of Geography and Geocryology Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan Bator

The retreat of alluvial river banks in the Wisłoka Valley (South Poland)

Kazimierz Klimek

Geographia Polonica (1974) vol. 28, pp. 59-76 | Full text

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The banks of the rivers dissecting the northern slope of the Polish West Carpathians and its foreland are being eroded in many places. The young ox-bows found in both the narrow Carpathian valleys and in the broad valleys in the foreland are examples of bank migration. The relation between the struc-ture and size of these alluvial banks and their mode of retreat is still an un-solved problem.

The article presents the results of research on the mode and rate of retreat of the alluvial banks of the Wisłoka river. Repeated observations were made over the period 1970-1972 in a chosen sector of the valley.

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Kazimierz Klimek, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland

Geomorphological and geological analysis of the proglacial area of Skeidararjökull. Extreme eastern and extreme western sections

Kazimierz Klimek

Geographia Polonica (1973) vol. 26, pp. 89-114 | Full text

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Kazimierz Klimek, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland

On the regularities in composition and mode of origin of kame terraces in the north-western part of the Małopolska Upland

Kazimierz Klimek

Geographia Polonica (1965) vol. 6, pp. 85-92 | Full text

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Kazimierz Klimek, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland

Efficacy of inland-ice erosion in the Małopolska upland during the Middle Polish (Riss) glaciation

Kazimierz Klimek

Geographia Polonica (1964) vol. 2, pp. 23-30 | Full text

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Kazimierz Klimek, University of Silesia , Earth Sciences Faculty, ul Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland