Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61

Symposium on the urban population at a microscale, Warsaw, 2-7 September, 1991


L'étude des populations urbaines à micro-échelle

Daniel Noin

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 7-18 | Full text

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The article considers the difficulties, limits and prospects of research onurban population at the microscale. It examines particularly the sociodemographicatlases published over the last twenty years. The development of this type ofresearch is fairly recent in the field of population geography. Nevertheless, microscalestudies offer interesting prospects. Given their practical usefulness, it is highlydesirable that they be largely developed.

Keywords: urban population, microscale studies, socio-demographic atlases

Daniel Noin, Institut de Géographie, Université de Paris 1, Paris, France

Réflexions sur les méthodes de projection en milieu urbain — nécessité de la prise en compte du logement

Alfred Dittgen

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 19-32 | Full text

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Projections concerning town or district populations need to take dwellingsinto account, unlike national or regional projections where this variable doesn't come intoplay. The first reason for this necessity is obvious: the disappearance or construction ofdwelling units automatically brings automatically about a diminishing or increasing ofpopulation. The second reason is more subtle. If a population is young and increasing,steadiness of the dwelling number leads to out-migration of the new households built inthe place. On the contrary, an older and decreasing population releases dwelling unitsand leads thus to immigrations. This communication shows how it is possible, practically,to integrate this dwelling constraint into the projection model.

Keywords: urban population, population projections, dwellings

Alfred Dittgen, Institut de Démographie de Paris, Université de Paris I — Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris, France

Apports des analyses à micro-échelle dans les recherches urbaines sur la différenciation sociale de l'espace en milieu urbain

Jean-philippe Damais

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 33-46 | Full text

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In account of a recent statutory prohibition of spreading data from Frenchcensus for spatial units below 5 000 inhabitants, the author of this paper, after twentyyears of research on microscale analysis of urban sphere — Housing, Populations —has chosen to present a defense of this model of analysis. Thus, he demonstrates theunique and unimpeachable contribution of block analysis for a full knowledge ofspace's organisation and differentiation in the urban sphere.

Keywords: organization and social differentiation of space in urban sphere, blocks, urban geography, urban populations

Jean-philippe Damais, Centre d'Etudes des Populations et des Activités Urbaines, Université de Paris-Nord (XIII), Université de Paris I, Paris, France

L'analyse intra-urbaine par carroyage

Yves Guermond, Gilles Lajoie

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 47-64 | Full text

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After stressing the current importance of Geographical InformationSystems (G.I.S.) for the study of intra-urban space, we deal with the problems relatedto their realization, and suggest a methodological option which allows a permanentobservation of both physical and social dimensions of this space.

Keywords: G.I.S., grid-square system, spatial statistic, urban space

Yves Guermond, Institut de Géographie, M.T.G., Université de Rouen, Rouen, France
Gilles Lajoie, Institut de Géographie, M.T.G., Université de Rouen, Rouen, France

Microscale population study: Methodological problems

Antonio Higueras-Arnal

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 65-72 | Full text

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The notions of space and scale are basic in any geographical study. Thenature of the geographical space changes when the scale changes. The street, theneighbourhood, the city and the metropolitan area all belong to the same geographicalcontext, but they differ in nature and physiognomy, structure and functionality.When we speak of a microscale study of the population, this must be defined verycarefully. The simplest elements in a demographic analysis are the individual andthe family, but it is doubtful whether this class of elements is of itself the object ofstudy of Population Geography, unless they are substantially integrated into specificgeographical spaces. That is, the microscale in a population study must refer only tospace and not to people or social groups per se, which can be the object of study insociology, rather than geography. The microspace is an existential, living space,which is perceived and internalized by the population which adopts it as its own.This is easy to say but difficult to explain. Each culture, each people, each social classand even each profession views the space in which it lives in different ways. The homehas a very different meaning in Central Europe from that in the Mediterraneancountries; likewise, the street and the square do not mean the same to Mediterraneanpeoples as they do to Central Europeans. Thus, simple statistical methods are ofteninsufficient for analyzing the population on a microscale. In contrast, methods whichexplain the attitudes and behaviour of the population are very useful.The above reflections follow from a complex study begun some years ago in Zaragoza.It is a study of Human Ecology in which principal component analysis techniques areused, together with factorial and cluster analysis. Different scales were involved:homes, city sections and districts.

Keywords: population geography, micro-scale, Zaragoza

Antonio Higueras-Arnal, Departament of Geography, University of Zaragoza, Spain

L'étude dynamique de la mobilité socio-spatiale ou les difficultés d'une recherche

Nicole Commerçon

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 73-84 | Full text

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Medium-sized towns have shown exceptional dynamics during the threedecennia which follow the second world war. This growth has involved an importantsocial change, as towns act as filters on the out and in-migration flows. This paperproposes a method to study this socio-spatial change, particularly with a longitudinalanalysis of population change using appropriated data collected at the microscale.

Keywords: socio-spatial mobility, medium-sized towns, migrations, longitudinal analysis

Nicole Commerçon, Laboratoire de Géographie Rhodanienne, C.N.R.S., Lyon, France

Post-enumeration reliability control of Hungarian population census data

Gabor Rôzsa

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 85-94 | Full text

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According to international recommendations, post-enumeration survey(PES) for checking reliability of census returns has become part of the Hungarianpopulation and housing census programme. The paper presents some examples of thefindings based on the cross-tabulation of 1980 census and PES results, as well asshort, preliminary information derived from the 1990 census control survey.

Keywords: population and housing census; quality control survey

Migration and demographic change in the region of Warsaw

Piotr Korcelli

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 95-102 | Full text

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The pattern of population growth in the region of Warsaw has beencharacterized by considerable temporal variation. Any attempt at forecasting thefuture change should be based upon sets of alternative assumptions. Such anapproach is followed in the present paper. Results of three population projections,derived from observed demographic data for 1978, 1983 and 1988, respectively, aremutually compared and evaluated. The author anticipates an acceleration ofpopulation growth of Warsaw in the late 1990s.

Keywords: population projections, multiregional system, components of population change

Piotr Korcelli, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warszawa, Poland

Les structures démographiques et socio-économiques de quelques villes européennes: quelques réflexions comparatives

Christian Vandermotten, Pierre Marissal

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 103-120 | Full text

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This paper studies, within the framework of a project for a comparativeatlas of European cities, pertinent and useable indicators to display the intra-urbansocial differentiations and the population densities levels delineating the externalfringe and the central core of the morphological agglomeration. The choice of thesocio-economical criteria is based upon a theory of the spatial patterns of the housingmarket. The first results, based on a comparison between Brussels, Antwerp, Liège,Rotterdam, Copenhagen, Lille, Paris, Madrid, Rome and Bratislava, show a muchmore complex pattern than this suggested by the theory of factorial ecology.

Keywords: Europe, urban geography, socio-economic patterns, intra-urban population densities

Christian Vandermotten, GEVERU, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgique
Pierre Marissal, GEVERU, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgique

Urban dynamics and life cycle of Madrid's population

Aurora Garcia Ballesteros

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 121-132 | Full text

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We are to analyse the relations between Madrid's urban space expansionand the changes that appear in said space due to the population's age cycle, as wellas the changes that recent urban renewal makes in the traditional pattern of anurban, aged centre versus a recently-built and young peripheiy.

Keywords: geo-demography, urban dynamics, demographic dynamics, Madrid

Aurora Garcia Ballesteros, Department of Human Geography, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain

Applying cohort analysis to residential segregation by age group in Berlin (West)

Satoshi Nakagawa

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 133-142 | Full text

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The purpose of this study was to apply cohort analysis to residentialsegregation patterns by age group in Berlin (West). The following results wereyielded: (1) Most of the segregation patterns of 14 five-year age groups show aconcentric tendency; the age groups of 0-19 and 35 and over tend to be distributedmore densely in the peripheral wards (Outer Berlin), and the age groups of 20-34tend to be distributed more densely in the central wards (Inner Berlin); (2) In recentyears the age groups of 0-9 and 30-39 have shifted their distribution from OuterBerlin to Inner Berlin and the age groups of 50 and over have shifted from InnerBerlin to Outer Berlin. These shifts are attributed to the differences in residentialtendencies between cohorts; in particular, the difference between the cohorts before1945 and the cohorts after 1946 plays an important role.

Keywords: cohort analysis, residential segregation by age group, Berlin (West)

Satoshi Nakagawa, Department of Economic Geography, Kobe University Rokkaodai-cho 2-1, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 Japan

Some effects of demographic and socio-economic changes on the internal population structure of the city. The example of Bonn (FRG)

Franz-josef Kemper

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 143-156 | Full text

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The paper explores effects of societal developments during the last twodecades on urban spatial structures. On the one hand, the demographic processes ofageing and changing household forms have important consequences for thedistribution of population groups. This is shown for one-person households andone-parent households as opposed to dual-headed families with children. On theother hand, the impacts of rising unemployment and growing female employment areanalysed. Altogether, the paper discusses the influence of an increasing plurality oflife-styles and the heterogeneity of population groups on the urban populationmosaic. As a case study, the city of Bonn is selected, and the empirical data aredrawn particularly from the census of 1987.

Keywords: household structure, unemployment and social welfare benefits

Franz-josef Kemper, Department of Geography, University of Bonn, Germany

La différenciation spatiale des structures démographiques de Palma de Majorque, (Iles Baléares, Espagne)

Pere A. Salvà Tomàs

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 157-170 | Full text

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The town of Palma (Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain) shows differentpopulation trends in its different districts. The Old Town presents a high old-ageindex and a permanent population loss. Eixample districts show an importantduality: ancient areas, with old population structures, and modern areas withimportant rates of in-migration and a high youth index. Outlying districts present adisperse constitution, with their functional classification (touristic areas, rural areas,industrial areas).

Keywords: Spain, Balearic Islands, Palma, urban population

Pere A. Salvà Tomàs, Département des Sciences de Tbrre, Université des Iles Baléares, Palma de Majorque, Espagne

Some problems of the demographic structure of Polish cities

Adam Jelonek

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 171-178 | Full text

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Distribution and density of the population in a geographical space dependmainly on the geographical environment conditions, the historical-political developmentand the socio-economic functions fulfilled by this space. In the city the naturalconditions play a minor role; the functions of the particular districts are moreimportant, age and standard of housing included. In numerous geographical works achangeability and some rules of the population density within the urban space wereproved. In Poland detailed investigations of spatial demographic structures withinthe city were made by the author on the basis of the data from the 1970 and 1978National Censuses, which made it possible to distinguish the population age groups(those of 0-17, 18-59 and over 60) and the sex structure in small census units. Heanalysed over 20 cities, with populations between 6 000 and 700 000.In all considered cases the same regularities of population distribution were found,expressed by a pattern of concentric rings. The highest shares of women wereobserved in the city centre and decreased towards the city boundaries, being thelowest in the areas incorporated most recently into the city. A similar pattern wasshown by the post-productive age group, an inverted one by the pre-productive agegroup. The distribution of the productive age group was not so regular, showing thehighest shares in the rings surrounding the city centre, where the new housingestates were built.In the case of the cities of the complex morphological structure (i.e. that of Cracow,with the new district of Nowa Huta, planned at first as a separate city), this regularpattern of the concentric rings of the demographical structures is disturbed. Thereare separate concentric patterns.

Keywords: demographic structure, population density, Cracow.

Adam Jelonek, Institute of Geography, Jagellonian University, Cracow, Poland

Territorial differentiation of demographic development level of the city. The case of Cracow

Andrzej Zborowski

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 179-188 | Full text

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In his paper the author presented the concept of the valuation ofdemographic development and its measures, which can be useful in microscaleinvestigations in Poland. Two variants of this concept were distinguished. The firstone is demographic sensu stricto, based on sex and age structure. The second variantis sociodemographic, connected with type of employment and education level.

Keywords: demographic development level, multidimensional comparative analysis

Andrzej Zborowski, Institute of Geography, Jagellonian University, Grodzka 64, 31-044 Krakow, Poland

Qui habite Kampala?

Bernard Calas, Ebukali Okwi

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 189-206 | Full text

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This paper deals with the socio-economic differentiation of Kampala'svillages. After a short historical analysis of the demographic growth of Kampala since1945, the results of an enquiry applied upon 250 households in 10 villages are given.The main point is that the average size of the household and the associations ofvarious types of households which characterized any village are narrowly related tomajor socio-economic determinants such as: land status, main income sources, lengthof stay in Kampala.

Keywords: urban growth, spatial differentiation, households' structure, socio- -economic status, urban integration

Bernard Calas, CREDU, Nairobi, Kenya
Ebukali Okwi, Département de Géographie, Université Makerere, Kampala, Ouganda

Correlates of urban fertility at the microscale. A case study of Kullu Tbwn, H.P., India

R.c. Chandna, Dhaneshwari Sharma

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 207-218 | Full text

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The study is based upon primary data. It covered 50 per cent of eligiblecouples (885) of a small town (Kullu) in a hill state (Himachal Pradesh) of India. Itaddresses itself to investigating the role of a variety of demographic, economic andsocio-cultural determinants of urban fertility at microscale. As many as 16 independentvariables related with age, spacing, education, occupation socio-economic setup and mortality have been taken into account.The chief objectives of the study are: (1) to identify the empirical correlates of urbanfertility at microscale; (2) to identify more dominant factors influencing fertilitybehaviour; (3) to isolate those variables which have critical causal effect on fertilitybehaviour; and (4) to measure the explanatory contribution of each such criticalvariable.A product moment correlation programme was run to identify empirical correlates offertility behaviour; the factor analysis was resorted to in order to condense thecorrelation matrix and to decompose variance of ferility into several componentsbased on its association with other variables; and multiple stepwise regression wasused to calculate contributions made by various individual independent variablestowards total fertility level.The study reveals, among other things, that the factors of age at marriage of thewoman, age at first parity, education of the woman and average spacing are the mostcritical correlates of fertility and need to be influenced most urgently in a countrylike India. Furthermore, education of the respondent and that of the spouse gotogether; age at marriage of the respondent and that of the spouse go together; age atmarriage of the respondent and age at first parity go together; and breast-feedingand average spacing go together. All these point vividly to the major areas of concernfor the policy makers of the Third World.

Keywords: urban fertility, Kullu Town, India

R.c. Chandna, Penjab University, Chandigarh, India
Dhaneshwari Sharma, Government College, Kullu, India

Screening the spatial structure of internal migration flows and their inherent dynamics — demonstrated at Berlin (West)

Gerhard O. Braun, Michael Tiefelsdorf

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 219-234 | Full text

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With a newly developed method, the intra-urban migration matrices betweenthe 97 census tracks of Berlin's former Western part for the several years up to 1989 willbe simultaneously displayed in a dynamic sequence. Where needed, the migration flowsbetween the census track will be broken into several groups, both genders or even ethnicorigins. These migration flows can also be adjusted to potential determinants and theirremaining residuals can be graphically analysed again.The underlying concept of our method (similarity structure analysis) is that thereexists a simultaneous transformation of bi-regional migration flows into relativedistances between the regions, i.e., we get a map of the regions with similar regionslocated close to each other and dissimilar regions located further apart. Then thesemaps for the single accounting periods can be rotated orthogonally into eachprecessor forming a path of each region through time.For Berlin — which can be regarded as closed system until the 9th of November, 1989 —we hope to show for the three accounting periods the flux of its people and theirpreferences for the residential areas as well as identifying almost closed migrationsubsystems within the 97 census tracks. Also we will analyse the residuals from a doublyconstrained gravity model to see whether there is any remaining structure in the maps.

Keywords: Berlin, similarity structure analysis, regional migration

Gerhard O. Braun, Department of Geography - Urban Studies and GIS Free University of Berlin, GrunewaldstraBe 35, 12165 Berlin, Germany
Michael Tiefelsdorf, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3C5

Le changement de résidence intra-urbain, de la mobilité résidentielle au dispositif migratoire

Joël Pailhé

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 235-246 | Full text

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This analysis is based upon the concept of migration at a local scale. It isnecessary to distinguish between simple removal and intra-urban migration, where itis held residential mobility and social change. The whole of the urban area must beconsidered like a migratory device.The investigation into households in Bordeaux allows one to confront data on seniority inthe neighbourhood, housing possession status, with data concerning the choice ofhousing: change in the situation of the family, professional reasons, local facilities.

Keywords: residential mobility, intra-urban migrations, social change

Joël Pailhé, CESURB, Université de Bordeaux III, Talence, France

Population contrasts in the London Docklands; new migrants and Council tenants in Wapping

Ray Hall

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 247-264 | Full text

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London's Docklands have undergone enormous economic and socialchange in the last decade. The paper examines aspects of the characteristics of thenew immigrants based on a postal questionnaire to newcomers in the Wapping areaof Docklands. Data are presented on sex, age, household structure, occupation andincome. By using local authority housing list data, it has been possible to make somecomparisons between the new private sector immigrants and those seekingaccommodation from the local authority within the same area and at the same time.The study demonstrates the problems of microscale investigations in the Britishcontext and reveals interesting findings about social differentiation in a rapidlychanging urban environment.

Keywords: London Docklands, population, migrants, households

Ray Hall, Department of Geography, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, London, United Kingdom

Mobilité et migrations dans et vers l'espace périurbain en Ile de Prance

Martine Berger

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 265-280 | Full text

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Periurban areas are usually considered as urban developments populatedby nearby urban families according to their social characteristics and who thuscontribute to the extension of the inner social patterns of cities. Within the Parisregior, the settlement of new housing units keeps providing the major part ofperiuiban population growth, but meanwhile, there is a rising turnover ofoccupancies in recently built, but not new, housing, and also an increasingshort-iistance mobility. Periurban migrations are not a mere centrifugal movementof spacing out, unequally shared by social classes.If the census data indicate that periurban mobility greatly vary according to socialclasses — the less wealthier moving the less further — there is no data available onthe relationships between mobility, either residential, social or occupational, and the life-cycles of households, i.e., on whether residential moves go along withoccupational changes and new housing choices. A survey lead into two periurbansettings of Paris (one in a new town and the other into an area of small developmentestates of single family housing units) allows the formation of some hypothesis.

Keywords: residential mobility, periurban area, single family housing units stock, longitudinal surveys and analysis, census data

Martine Berger, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Fontenay-Saint-Cloud, CNRS — URA 142, STRATES, Université de Paris 1, Paris, France

Intra-urban migration in the Warsaw urban region

Alina Potrykowska

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 281-292 | Full text

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The author presents the study of spatial mobility of population within theurban region of Warsaw. The analysis of spatial variations of intra-regional andintra-urban migration has confirmed remarkably persistent regularities.

Keywords: intra-urban migration, age-specific migration schedules

Alina Potrykowska, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warszawa, Poland

Mobilité résidentielle dans l'agglomération Lilloise entre 1975 et 1982

Sylvie Coupleux, Sabine Duhamel

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 293-304 | Full text

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The multipolar feature of the urban area of Lille appears through aprofusion of flux complicated by the emergence of the new town, Villeneuve d'Ascq.Around the four main poles (Lille, Roubaix, Tourcoing, Villeneuve d'Ascq), areas ofmigratory influence have appeared, within which the redistribution of the populationis accomplished according to the specificity of the communes and the life time of theindividual.

Keywords: migration, structure nodale, multipolaire, redistribution spatiale

Sylvie Coupleux, Laboratoire de Géographie Humaine, Université des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
Sabine Duhamel, Laboratoire de Géographie Humaine, Université des Sciences et Techniques de Lille-Flandres-Artois, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France

Intra-urban migration and declared migration preference movements in Prague

Duśan Drbohlav

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 305-316 | Full text

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The aim of this paper is to present a brief analysis of the migration of theinhabitants in the Czech capital of Prague according to 110 so-called "cadastral units"(the source of data was the Central Register of Population) in the period of1986-1990. These objective data are compared to the preferences and imagination ofthe inhabitants of Prague concerning the most convenient places for permanentliving (the source of data was a questionnaire survey carried out in 1990, N = cca400). There is discussion in the paper as well as an empirical attempt (StepwiseRegression) to find the relations among the processes of migration, preference andgeographic, socio-economic and demographic structures of the town.

Keywords: Prague, migration, preference, quality of life

Duśan Drbohlav, Institute of Geography, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic

Structure of migration flows in Kainuu, Finland

Elli Karjalainen

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 317-328 | Full text

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The purpose is to study areal differences in development at the regionaland local levels employing migration as the chief indicator. An attempt is also madeto describe the nature of the hierarchical structure of migration.Recent changes in regional development reflect an increasing tendency foragglomeration and centralization. By reference to the model for commune-internalmigration, the rural areas of the communes form two zones: regressive areas, whichare the more remote parts of the countryside, and intermediate areas, located close tothe built-up areas. The built-up areas themselves represent a developing type.

Keywords: migration, regional development

Elli Karjalainen, Research Institute of Northern Finland, University of Oulu, Kajaani, Finland

Settlement patterns of the new Chinese immigrants in urban America

Wilawan Kanjanapan

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 329-344 | Full text

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The United States has been the country receiving the largest permanentimmigration of over half a million persons annually. Focusing on the Chinese ethnicsin particular, this paper examines settlement patterns of this group of newimmigrants. Three specific questions are raised: (1) Where do the new Chineseimmigrants intend to initially locate in the United States? (2) Are there anydifferences in location choices among the new Chinese immigrants of various origins?(3) Have new Chinese immigrants a tendency to settle in the metropolitan areaswhere old immigrants of the same ethnic origin live? To answer these questions, across-sectional analysis is performed based on data from the 1980 U.S. census andthe U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service.The results show that among the six largest Asian ethnic groups in the UnitedStates, the Chinese are the most geographically concentrated in metropolitan areas.For the new immigrants, the data show variations in settlement patterns amongChinese bom in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Attempts are also made toassess the relationship between ethnic enclaves and location choices of newimmigrants. The hypothesis that immigrants are more likely to settle in the urbanareas where their fellow ethnics live is somewhat supported by the empirical data.The study is, however, constrained by limitations of the data and more effort shouldbe made toward an improvement of collecting detailed information on newimmigrants admitted to the United States.

Keywords: settlement patterns, location choices, immigration

Wilawan Kanjanapan, Institute of European and American Studies, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

Sociogéographie médicale à micro-échelle: Méthodes d'analyse et de localisation

Suzanne Veillette, Michel Perron, Gilles Hébert

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 345-366 | Full text

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The choice of a socio-geographical approach at the microscale involvessuperposing methods from many social sciences, such as geography, sociology andden raphy. We are especially interested in analysing the relationship betwem theheal in of the Saguenay urban population (Quebec) and the prevailing socialconditions. Principally, we studied mortality and causes of death, a genetic cisease(myotonic dystrophy) and the social areas of the Chicoutimi-Jonquière urbar area.The need to locate the diseases very precisely and to analyse the local characteristicsassociated with them, necessitated the development of high performance locatingtools. The automated research and cartography system (SYRCO) that we developed,makes the treatment of public health data easier. It allows the location of thousand ofclients with the complete address and/or the six position Canadian postal cede. Itseems promising to continue to experiment with a microscale approach for sociosanitarymonitoring and planning. This gives detailed knowledge of a popuhtion'shealth and enables trends to be observed.

Keywords: medical geography, microscale, automatic location, social areas, Chicoutimi-Jonquière (Quebec)

Suzanne Veillette, Groupe d'Etudes des Conditions de Vie et des Besoins de Santé (ECOBES) Cégep de Jonquière, Jonquière, Québec, Canada
Michel Perron, Groupe d'Etudes des Conditions de Vie et des Besoins de Santé (ECOBES) Cégep de Jonquière, Jonquière, Québec, Canada
Gilles Hébert, Groupe d'Etudes des Conditions de Vie et des Besoins de Santé (ECOBES) Cégep de Jonquière, Jonquière, Québec, Canada

The quality of the natural environment and demographic processes in large towns in Poland

Janusz Witkowski

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 367-378 | Full text

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The ongoing degradation of the natural environment, especially in someregions of Poland, gives rise to justifiable anxiety and encourages concern for thesignificance of this factor in the state of health, the rate and causes of mortality, thepathology of reproductiveness, and also the migratory behaviours of the population.The main research task was to discover the particularities of the course ofdemographic processes in towns with varying degrees of degradation of the naturalenvironment. This paper presents the demographic consequences of degradation ofnatural environment in Poland, based on the example of large towns, which includedthree basic processes: births, deaths and migration.Research results confirmed, that the quality of the natural environment is one of themortality factors in Poland. This is observed in the highest mortality rates in townslocated in the regions of ecological peril. The impact of the quality of the environmenton population mortality is most powerful among children and young people. However,it occurred that higher mortality co-occurs with ecological conditions which are notalways the worst. Therefore, the ongoing degeneration of the natural environment inPoland is not yet commonly reflected in mortality rates. Different and disadvantageousmortality patterns only occurred in strongly degenerated towns.The research carried out has also shown that the quality of the natural environment is notindifferent to reproduction. The endangered towns are distinguished by the lowest levelsof fertility as well as a worse weight-specific structure of newborns. In spite of the manysigns of the negative impact of the natural environment in Poland on the differentdimensions of fertility, it is not a factor of decisive significance. However, its role increasessystematically and it is most powerful in the most degenerated towns.Finally we can state that the thesis of the disadvantageous impact of the deterioration ofthe environment on the course of demographic processes has been confirmed. Theconcentration of negative demographic consequences in the most desolate regionssuggests that only exceeding a certain limit of environmental pollution distinctlymodifies demographic processes.

Keywords: quality of natural environment, demographic processes, Poland

Janusz Witkowski, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland

Demographic perspectives on urban environment. A case of Delhi

V.k. Tyagi

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 379-392 | Full text

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Despite considerable progress in the improvement of the environment inlarge cities of the developing countries of the World, widespread problems still existdue to a large number of socio-economic factors within and outside the urban areas.The growing population in a city like Delhi where nearly 200 000 people migrateevery year, the concern for future trends and the welfare of the people are obviouslythe important issues before the planners and the researchers. With an annual growthrate of around 5.0 per cent, the population of Delhi may cross the 13 million mark by2001. Out of this more than 50 per cent will be migrants and a majority of them willbe either illiterate or semiliterate. The rising cost of housing in the city will continueto force the poor migrants to encroach upon the vacant land and build substandardhouses, converting the large urban area into slums.The physical expansion of the city into the surrounding rural countryside hasbrought many villages within the urban limits. Similarly, a large number ofunauthorized and resettlement colonies have originated in all directions of the city.These developments have made the urban environment a more complicated issue. Itis, therefore, necessary to identify the stronger correlates in evaluation of the qualityof the liveable environment in the Indian context by analysing the demographiccharacteristics of Delhi for better planning for the future.


V.k. Tyagi, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

Attitudes towards the social environment of a small town

Wiesław Maik

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 393-404 | Full text

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This paper presents a new approach in geographic research on innovationwhich consists of analysis of the intermediary features between a social structure andinnovation attitudes. The accepted variables indicate the situational context —human individuals in a local community, closely connected with widely understoodconditions of everyday life. The research hypothesis of assuming fundamentalconditioning of innovations by situational factor was partly confirmed in the study.The situational context is an important factor forming a system of innovationattitudes in the place of everyday life and work.

Keywords: innovation, locality, situational context

Wiesław Maik, Institute of Geography, Nicholaus Copernicus University, Tbruń, Poland

Urban renewal in Rotterdam and Amsterdam: Population consequences

B.g.j. Driessen, J.g.p. Ter Welle-Heethuis

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 405-420 | Full text

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The central issue is: What are the effects of urban renewal activities onpopulation developments in neighbourhoods in Rotterdam and Amsterdam. Twodifferent groups of census tracts with a similar population development weredetected. They differ mostly with regard to the growth in the proportion of foreigners.Differences in population development between these groups for Rotterdam andAmsterdam mainly seemed to be related to the initial housing stock and initialhousehold composition. For Amsterdam the initial age structure was important aswell. Variables related to urban renewal activities, like the changing ratio of socialhousing and new dwellings, were more important for Rotterdam.

Keywords: urban renewal, activities, urban policy, population development, neighbourhood development

B.g.j. Driessen, Institute of Geographical Research, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands
J.g.p. Ter Welle-Heethuis, Institute of Geographical Research, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands

The intra-urban disparities in "socialist and capitalist" cities. Comparing post Second World War experience of Poland and Italy

Marco Costa, Grzegorz Węcławowicz, Ubaldo Formentini

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 421-432 | Full text

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The sequence of certain phenomena connected with urbanization istypical of all European countries. The actual course of these phenomena and theirintensity results from the specificity of a given country, and especially the level ofdevelopment, cultural tradition and from transformations of social structures. Ourattention will be concentrated on the most important forces shaping social groupdistribution in urban space: land rent in Italy, planning and egalitarian policy inPoland, traditional and cultural values, impact of housing and social policy,ideological factors. The last part concentrates on the issue of usefulness of the Italiancapitalist experience for post-communist urban development of Polish cities.

Keywords: intra-urban disparities, egalitarian policy, social structure

Marco Costa, Faculty of Economics, University of Trento, Trento, Italy
Grzegorz Węcławowicz, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
Ubaldo Formentini, Département de Géographie, Université de Pise, 56126 Pisa, Via San Giuseppe 22, Italie

Inequality in the American City: Some evidence from the South

David M. Smith, Stephen Pile

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 433-448 | Full text

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The economic and political progress of black people in the United Statesin recent years could invite the expectation that the American city will have becomemore equal, in a racial and spatial sense. Evidence from selected cities in part of theSouth shows that this is not the case. In the four cities studied there was a wideningof the gap between predominantly white and predominantly black residential areasbetween 1960 and 1980. There was also an increase in inequality among thepredominantly black tracts, with the upward and outward mobility of the affluentwhile the poor remained trapped in inner-city poverty. Trends in individual cities aresubject to some differences, however, which can in part be attributed to the localextent of political and economic empowerment of the black population.

Keywords: America, blacks, cities, inequality, race

David M. Smith, Department of Geography, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, London, United Kingdom
Stephen Pile, School of Geography and Planning, Middlesex Polytechnic, Middlesex, United Kingdom

Albert Park, Durban — Mixed-race residential areas during the phase of reformed apartheid

Jürgen Bàhr, Ulrich Jiirgens

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 449-458 | Full text

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Since the end of the 1970s the government of South Africa has shown adecreasing interest in enforcing apartheid measures, and the social and economicpractice of apartheid has been reformed. In the process, residential structures havedeveloped in which, contrary to the provisions of the Group Areas Act, populationgroups of different skin colours live together. Using Albert Park, a mixed racialresidential area in Durban with flatland character, as an example, this study tries toanalyse the motives and processes that have led to an influx of non-whites into"white" areas.

Keywords: mixed-racial area, South Africa

Jürgen Bàhr, Institute of Geography, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany
Ulrich Jiirgens, Institute of Geography, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany

The changing apartheid city at the microscale: Black migration and the peri-urban black-white interface in the Durban Functional Region, South Africa

D. Hywel Davies

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 459-470 | Full text

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The racially segregated South African "apartheid city" is crumbling withapartheid itself. With influx controls removed, rural Blacks are streaming into informalsettlements mushrooming around First World cities designed primarily for Whites. PoorBlack and comfortable White residential areas increasingly become juxtaposed. Thispaper examines part of such a developing interface in the Durban Functional Region(DFR), the second largest urban region. Here many Black informal settlements, growingat 6.5 per cent annually, fall under non-urban tribal authority within self-governing andunder-developed KwaZulu; adjacent White residential areas have conventional westernforms of local government. This paper focusses on a study area located on the northernfringe of the DFR in 3 contiguous sub-areas to illustrate some problems and responses ata Black-White interface. Embo-Hillcrest displays a sharp residential interface betweenthe KwaZulu district of Embo and the White township of Hillcrest. The Embo-FarmUEL980 interface has a recently approved land use change from a White-ownedsugarcane farm to a proposed industrial park intended to provide local Black employment.In the Molweni-Waterfall area planned Black resettlement on former White landimpinges on a White township.Local problems include Black access to urban transport and amenities within Natal notfound in KwaZulu. There is White concern over security and property values and therehave been insensitivities in development application. But there has been encouragingconsultation between Black and White communities across the interface. Potential"flashpoints" have been identified where informal settlements of the poor, living insocio-political turmoil and a crisis of unrealistic expectations, are juxtaposed with thoseof Whites, seemingly secure and insensitive to Black needs but in profound future shock.Secondly, divisions, diseconomies and compartmentalization permeate urban life — thusKwaZulu and White authorities lack adequate mechanisms for interaction. Urbanizing Blacks are divided over tribal authority and political affiliation. Cross-cultural conmunicationdifficulties are exacerbated by the apartheid legacy. The post-apartheid cityr facesenormous problems, but established administrative structures and economic bas»s offeropportunity for managing an alarming urban future.

Keywords: post-apartheid city, peri-urban interface, Durban

D. Hywel Davies, Geography Department, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

Definition of squatter housing

Asye Gedik

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 471-478 | Full text

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One of the most pressing problems faced by developing countries issquatter housing which results in many-folded problems for the cities. Firstly, someof the characteristics of the squatter housing are summarized briefly. The variety andtransformation of these characteristics in different developing countries are indicated.The main purpose of this study is to define squatter housing in terms of settheory in order to bring clarity to what is meant by squatter housing in developingcountries.

Keywords: squatter housing, slums, legal status, set theory

Asye Gedik, Department of City and Regional Planning , Middle East Tbchnical University, Ankara, T\irkey

The regional structure of unemployment in Poland

Teresa Czyż

Geographia Polonica (1993) vol. 61, pp. 479-498 | Full text

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Unemployment is a new social phenomenon in Poland brought about by aradical reconstruction of the socio-economic system. It is highly diversified spatially andgrows fast. In this paper a study is carried out of the dependence between the unemploymentlevel and the socio-economic structure and its transformation in Poland's regional(voivodship) system. The research procedure includes the application of principal componentsanalysis to the identification of significant structural dimensions.

Keywords: regional unemployment differences, the socio-economic structure and unemployment, principal components analysis, Poland

Teresa Czyż, Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Space Economy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań, Poland