Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63

Articles

Spatial organization in the process of transition from a centrally planned to a market economy

Ryszard Domański

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 5-12 | Full text

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Abstract:

The main topic discussed is the change of spatial organization during the period of transition from a centrally planned to a market economic system. The economic reforms start, cause some temporal perturbations and conflicts then effect changes in the location and linkage patterns, hierarchical transformations and shifts in the spatial structure of the economy.

Keywords: economic transformations, self-organization theory, self-government, local initiatives, privatization of the former state-owned enterprises, infrastructural barriers

Ryszard Domański, Academy of Economics Poznań, Department of Spatial and Environmental Economics al. Niepodległości 10, 60-967 Poznań, Poland

The place of geography in the studies on the Man and the Earth system

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 13-20 | Full text

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Abstract:

The author discusses the place of geographical sciences in studies of the system "Man and the Earth". Nowadays this system is investigated by various disciplines starting from the earth and biological sciences upto physics, chemistry, economic, social, agricultural and technical sciences.The geographical sciences should try to keep their central position due to their wide perspectives, both spatial (regional) and historical (genetic).

Keywords: Man and Earth, environment, geography, ecosystem studies

Leszek Starkel, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

On a new approach to the theory of settlement systems

Kazimierz Dziewoński

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 21-24 | Full text

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The present discourse demonstrates the thoughts related to the possibilities and consequences of an adaptation for the geographic settlement systems research of the methodological approaches and concepts taken from natural sciences, especially the concept of deterministic chaos along with the concept and measures of entropy.

Keywords: settlement system dynamics, supra-national urban system

Kazimierz Dziewoński, Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 30, 00-927 Warszawa

Retailing and urban managerialism: process and pattern in Łódź, Poland

Ray Riley, Anna Małgorzata Niżnik

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 25-36 | Full text

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It is argued that positive explanations of retail location in Polish cities have simply described spatial patterns and have inadequately explored causative processes. Central to the latter is the concept of urban managerialism. The paper focuses on the Łódź managers, or gatekeepers, who have laid down the rules for privatisation, drawn up minimum bid-rents for different zones, and have discriminated in favour of certain types of shop. Recent retail changes in the main shopping street, Piotrkowska, are analysed, and an assessment made of the role of the urban managers.

Keywords: bid-rent zones, Łódź, privatisation, retailing, urban managerialism

Ray Riley, Department of Geography, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth POI 3HE, U. K.
Anna Małgorzata Niżnik, Instytut Geografii Ekonomicznej, Uniwersytet Łódzki, al. Kościuszki 21, 90-418 Łódź

Recent bioclimatological studies in Poland

Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Teresa Kozłowska-Szczęsna, Barbara Krawczyk

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 37-50 | Full text

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The study presents the results of bioclimatic investigations carried out in Department of Climatology of the Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The aims of this research involve evaluation and regionalization of a bioclimate of Poland in different spatial scales from the point of view of climatotherapeutical and recreational potential as well as work under an open air. Bioclimatic weather classification and human heat balance method were used in this study.

Keywords: bioclimatic mapping, weather classsifications, human heat balance

Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Teresa Kozłowska-Szczęsna [klimat@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Barbara Krawczyk [b.kraw@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

The diagnosis of climate change in Cracow against a background of circulation and local conditions

Barbara Obrębska-Starklowa, Zygmunt Olecki, Janina Trepińska

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 51-62 | Full text

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Abstract:

The multi-annual variability of thermal, solar and cloudiness conditions in Cracow was examined from the point of view of the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the climate change. The analysis concerned the annual air temperature range (RAT) and daily ranges of air temperature (DAT) in January and July. Special attention has been paid to the climatic trends and changes of climatic continuity. Long-term changes of RAT reflect the impact of the circulation factors, these of DAT are influenced by the urbanisation.

Keywords: climate, monitoring, research of climatic changes, global warming

Barbara Obrębska-Starklowa, Department of Climatology, Jagiellonian University, Cracow
Zygmunt Olecki, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Instytut Geografii, ul. Grodzka 64, 21-044 Kraków
Janina Trepińska, Institute of Geography, Jagellonian University ul. Grodzka 64, 31-044 Kraków, Poland

Transport of suspended load in the Parsęta River during the flash flood of June 1988, Poland

Andrzej Kostrzewski, Alfred Stach, Zbigniew Zwoliński

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 63-74 | Full text

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Abstract:

In the first half of June 1988 intense rainfall was recorded in the center of West Pomerania. It caused a flash flood in the catchment of the upper Parsęta which made itself felt also in the lower reaches of the river. The flood occurred in three periods of flood waves (11.1, 2.2 and 6.6 m3s"1 respectively, mean annual discharge equalled 0.7 m3s"1). In the analysis attention is paid to hydrological and geomorphological aspects of the transport of suspended load along the Parsęta course as effects of processes taking place in the catchment area. The transport of the suspended sediment load varied over the flood period because of a strong hysteresis effect. We distinguished three kinds of hysteresis loops: clockwise, anticlockwise and two-part. They represent different conditions of water and sediment supply from the catchment and the Parsęta channel. During the flood period 203 tons of suspended sediment load were removed, compared with 891 tons for the whole year. W^hen comparing water flow and the transport of suspended material recorded at two extreme stations of the longprofile of the Parsęta River, the striking aspect is their dependence on the distance from the agent, i.e. the heavy rainfall in the upper Parsęta catchment, and indirectly on the catchment size. In the case of a small catchment, the responses are more dynamic and diversified, while in a large one they are more stable and even. The results allow an evaluation of the role of an extreme phenomenon in fluvial transport in the lowland and young glacial catchments.

Keywords:

Andrzej Kostrzewski [Andrzej.Kostrzewski@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Alfred Stach, Instytut Badań Czwartorzędu, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza ul. Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań
Zbigniew Zwoliński, Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań: Poland

Distribution and dynamics of rural population in Central E astern Europe in the 20th century

Piotr Eberhardt

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 75-94 | Full text

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The work deals with demographic problems of the rural areas in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Kaliningrad District, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Czecho-slovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Moldavia, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. In the text, the common term "Central Eastern Europe" is applied to these countries. A statistical analysis has been employed with regard to nine time intervals/time points: 1897/1900; 1910/1913; 1920/1921; 1939/1941; 1948/1950; 1960; 1970; 1980 and 1987/1990. For each of them the size of rural population and its density have been evaluated, and then, the dynamics of demographic evolution described. An important part of the analysis has been the comparison of rural population to total population. On the basis of this comparison, structural changes and demographic trends have been defined. Particular attention has been paid to the processes of depopulation as well as their range and intensity in rural areas of Central Eastern Europe.

Keywords: rural population, density, migrations towards urban areas, dynamics, depopulation of rural areas

Piotr Eberhardt [p.ebe@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

Multiregional demographic projections: Polish experiences

Marek Kupiszewski

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 95-104 | Full text

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Abstract:

The papers discusses the development of theoretical issues and applications of multistate and multiregional demographic projections in Poland. It is structured arround following problems: 1. Development of the theory of multistate demographic projections; 2. Generation of projections and analysis of their results as the source of knowledge on the current demographic situation in its spatial dimension; 3. Application of different parameters of projected population for better understanding and measurement of the dynamics of multiregional population; 4. Simulations; 5. Comparison of a series of projections for one time point, but using various types of data concerning spatial mobility of population; 6. Analysis and comparison of a series of projections for the constant spatial setting and for one type of data but using data for various years; 7. Generation of multistate projections; 8. Assessment of the exactness of multistate population projections. The paper ends with some remarks on future developments of multistate demography in Poland.

Keywords: multistate, multiregional, projection, forecast, Poland, demography, population

An attempt at the zoogeographical regionalization of Europe on the basis of the distribution of vertebrates

Bożenna Grabińska

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 105-118 | Full text

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Presented is a zoogeographical regionalization of Europe on the basis of the contemporary distribution of mammal faunas. The richness of families, genera and species of these animals was defined on the basis of source materials. The data obtained enabled analyses to be made of the zoogeographical similarity of the mammal species in 29 administrative units and 58 territorial-biogeographical units.

Keywords: zoogeographical regionalization, mammal distribution, administrative units, biogeographical units, similarity

Bożenna Grabińska [b.grab@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

Prices of food products in Polish territory as index of climatic oscillations in the little ice age

Henryk Maruszczak

Geographia Polonica (1994) vol. 63, pp. 119-130 | Full text

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Abstract:

In the period between the two World Wars studies of prices of food articles in Poland were carried out. The particular authors, however, dealt with relatively short periods and did not pay attention to secular oscillations. The results of studies of three different authors made it possible to plot for Cracow a diagram of prices expressed by a silver equivalent, comprising the period 1369-1914. Besides general tendencies depending on economic conditions, long-term oscillations corresponding with climatic changes are found in this diagram. Three periods of a relatively rapid growth of prices can be distinguished which correspond with three cooling waves during "Little Ice Age": I — from the middle of the 14th c. to the middle of the 15th c.; II — from about 1520 to the turn of the 17th and 18th c.; Ill — from 1700 to 1850/1890.

Keywords: climatic oscillations, Little Ice Age, Polish territory, price indices

Henryk Maruszczak, Department of Physical Geography and Paleogeography, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland