Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1

General and applied climatology: selected aspects

Preface

Editorial

Magdalena Kuchcik, Krzysztof Błażejczyk

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 5-7 | Full text

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Magdalena Kuchcik [mkuchcik@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Articles

Relationships between cloudiness, precipitation and air temperature

Dorota Matuszko, Robert Twardosz, Katarzyna Piotrowicz

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 9-17 | Full text

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Abstract:

The work described in this paper aimed at determining the relationship between air temperature, cloudiness and precipitation, based on the Cracow meteorological records. Meteorological data from the period 1901-2000 were used. The research was based on mean monthly temperature totals; the number of days with maximum temperatures above 10°C and above 25°C; annual and daily precipitation as well as the cloud cover and cloud type in three climatic observation terms. The mean yearly air temperature was found to show steady growth, induced by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Climatic warming in Cracow probably has resulted in the more frequent appearance of convective clouds, as well as intense showers, thunderstorms and hailstorms. On the other hand, the frequency of Stratus clouds and fog has been diminished which probably contributed to a reduction in the number of days with light precipitation. No overall trend has been detected in the long-term series for total annual precipitation, as periods of high and low precipitation balanced each other.

Keywords: cloudiness, precipitation, air temperature, Cracow, Poland

Dorota Matuszko [d.matuszko@iphils.uj.edu.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University Grodzka 64, 31-044 Kraków, Poland
Robert Twardosz [r.twardosz@iphils.uj.edu.pl], Department of Climatology, Institute of Geography of the Jagellonian University ul. Grodzka 64, 31-044 Kraków, Poland
Katarzyna Piotrowicz [k.piotrowicz@iphils.uj.edu.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University Grodzka 64, 31-044 Kraków, Poland

The distribution of fog frequency in the carpathians

Marek Błaś, Mieczysław Sobik

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 19-34 | Full text

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Abstract:

Altitude is one of the predominant factors which controls the annual number of days with fog (NDF). The second important factor influencing NDF is station location in regard to circulation patterns and distance from the sea. NDF depends also on terrain morphology at a given station site and in its wider neighbourhood, island-mountain of morphology or a position on the windward side of a larger massif. Special attention is paid to stations in convex landforms where orographic fog caused by the forced ascent of moist air occurs frequently. The large NDF (highest away from the Hercynian Mts) observed in the Carpathians suggest that this region is characterised by an important additional potential water flux in the form of horizontal precipitation. Depending on land use, this could play an important role in pollutant deposition, as it does in the Hercynian Mts.

Keywords: fog frequency, fog deposition, fog distribution, fog-annual variations, Carpathians, mountain climatology

Marek Błaś [blasm@meteo.uni.wroc.pl], Department of Meteorology and Climatology, University of Wrocław, Kosiby 8, 51-670 Wrocław, Poland
Mieczysław Sobik [sobik@meteo.uni.wroc.pl], Department of Meteorology and Climatology, University of Wrocław, Kosiby 8, 51-670 Wrocław, Poland

Energy exchange in an active layer in the Kocioł Kasprowy (Tatra Mountains)

Jarosław Baranowski

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 35-44 | Full text

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Abstract:

The studies were done between 8th and 20th August 1998, in an area extending between 1820 and 1880 m a.s.l. (located in the altitudinal zone of alpine vegetation). The study location named Kocioł Kasprowy is the corrie on the upper part of the slope. The magnitude of the heat flux in the active layer was measured with a heat flux sensor of diameter 5 cm, placed on special stands close to the soil surface. The research showed that factors other than incident solar radiation having a major influence on the size of the energy flux flowing through the active layer are site exposure and inclination. The work confirmed that the frequency of occurrence and amount of precipitation influences energy conductivity in soil markedly, and hence also the size of the heat flux.

Keywords: Tatra Mountains, heat flux, active layer

Jarosław Baranowski [j.bar@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

The main features of bioclimatic conditions at Polish health resorts

Teresa Kozłowska-Szczęsna, Barbara Krawczyk, Krzysztof Błażejczyk

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 45-61 | Full text

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Abstract:

Climate-related treatment is one form of therapy at health resorts that bases itself around the use of natural climatic attributes. In the light of this, the aim of the present studies has been to analyse the bioclimatic conditions at different Polish health resorts, with a view to the available curative resources of the climate being determined, along with the opportunities for the different forms of climatotherapy to be taken advantage of.

Keywords: bioclimate, climatotherapy, health resorts, Poland

Teresa Kozłowska-Szczęsna [klimat@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Barbara Krawczyk [b.kraw@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Radiation balance in man in various meteorological and geographical conditions

Krzysztof Błażejczyk

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 63-76 | Full text

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Abstract:

Solar radiation is a very important factor influencing human beings, in that it plays a significant role in the human heat balance. Bioclimatic and thermophysiological research makes use of various ways by which to assess absorbed solar radiation (ASR), as an essential part of the radiation balance in man (Q). Previous research based either on theoretical considerations or on experimental studies has used different analogue models of the human being as either a vertical cylinder or on ellipsoid. The present paper discusses the results of experimental studies on solar radiation absorption with absorbed fractions of solar radiation being measured on a mannequin. Depending on the kind of radiation data, three models were proposed for assessing ASR. The accuracy of the models was verified by direct measurements made on subjects.

Keywords: absorbed solar radiation, radiation balance of humans, skin temperature

Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Variation in active surface temperature in the Nara region of Japan

Anna Beata Adamczyk

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 77-87 | Full text

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Abstract:

A continuous variation of thermal energy, presented as air temperature, is registered by a ground-based network. However, an insufficient number of stations does not allow for the presentation of the spatial distribution of these values on the meso or micro scales. For this reason data recorded by a satellite sensor were used to analyse the variation in thermal energy on both spatial and temporal scales. Five satellite images were selected to represent seasons of the year and the thermal conditions of these days were validated. Apart from in August they presented typical thermal conditions for the month, thereby allowing the relation between different types of land cover and surface temperature in satellite acquisition time to be analysed.

Keywords: air temperature, surface temperature, satellite data, type of land cover

Anna Beata Adamczyk [a.badam@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

Research notes

Thunderstorm seasons and regions in poland

Leszek Kolendowicz

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 89-95 | Full text

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Abstract:

Taking into consideration the similarity to annual courses characteristic of the number of days with thunderstorms at Polish synoptic stations, an attempt has been made to determine potential seasons of thunderstorm days per year. The stations were also capable of being grouped such that Poland could be divided into five thunderstorm regions. Differences in the thunderstorm activity characteristics of particular stations and thunderstorm regions are connected with both the circulation of the atmosphere and such local conditions, as relief, land cover or the influence of the Baltic Sea on the coast.

Keywords: thunderstorm seasons, thunderstorm regions

Leszek Kolendowicz [leszko@amu.edu.pl], Institute of Physical Geography and Environmental Planning Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznań, Poland

Book review

Weather and transportation in Canada. Ed. J. Andrey, C. Knapper. Waterloo, 2003

Magdalena Kuchcik

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 1, pp. 97-100 | Full text

Further information

Keywords:

Magdalena Kuchcik [mkuchcik@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland