Geographia Polonica (2005) vol. 77, iss. 2

Articles

Human Activity Transforming and Designing River Landscapes: A Review Perspective

Kenneth John Gregory

Geographia Polonica (2005) vol. 77, iss. 2, pp. 5-20 | Full text

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Abstract:

Where physical geography might go in the next fifty years can be contemplated froma review of how river channels have been studied in the last fifty years. The river landscape is abasis for introducing seven ways in which river landscapes have been studied and researched,culminating in an eighth holistic phase. Conclusions from studies of impacts of human activityprovide a basis for suggesting that physical geographers should be more concerned with the designof river landscapes and ways in which this might be achieved are suggested.

Keywords: river channels, river landscapes, river channel changes, landscape design, future physical geography

Kenneth John Gregory, School of Geography, University of Southampton Southampton, SO17 1BJ United Kingdom

Large-scale Transect Studies and their Use in the Investigation of Climate Effects on Carbon Storage in Forest Ecosystems

David D. Reed, Glenn D. Glenn D.

Geographia Polonica (2005) vol. 77, iss. 2, pp. 21-26 | Full text

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Abstract:

The development of large-scale transects in ecological studies has provided a newtool for investigating ecosystem behavior under changing climate. These studies do not replaceexperimental research, but provide a complimentary tool that substitutes space for time in the investigationof complex ecological responses that cannot be easily examined in controlled experiments.Examples of two large-scale transect studies are described, and selected results regardingthe allocation of C within ecosystems in response to climate are highlighted.

Keywords: global change, transect studies, gradient studies, carbon cycling

David D. Reed, School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI 49931 USA
Glenn D. Glenn D., School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI 49931 USA

The importance of parallel studies on past and present day environmental change

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 2, pp. 27-34 : wykr | Full text

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Abstract:

The parallel study of past and present-day environmental changes helps in the betterunderstanding of the relations between processes, their effects, and the long-term trends to themas well as in the recognition of the relations between various temporal and spatial scales. Theauthor characterizes two means of deduction: from processes to effects and in the opposite direction.Especially valuable are studies on the last centuries, in which all groups of methods may beused simultaneously.

Keywords: parallel study on past and present, environmental changes, processes, long-term trends

Leszek Starkel, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Changes in Vegetation and Soils of the East European Plain to Be Expected in the 21st Century Due to the Anthropogenic Changes in Climate

Andrej Alekseevič Veličko, O. K. Borisova, E. M. Zelikson, T. D. Morozova

Geographia Polonica (2005) vol. 77, iss. 2, pp. 35-46 | Full text

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Abstract:

The paleogeographic analog method has been applied to estimate future changes inthe state of the main components of the environment on the East European Plain at three timeintervals within the 21st century (the 2030s, 2050s, and 2080s). Two warm epochs of the past, theHolocene optimum (c.5.5 kyr BP) and the Mikulino (Eemian) interglacial optimum (c.125 kyrBP) have been chosen as the paleoanalogs. In the first decades of the 21st century the most probablechanges involve herbaceous plants and tree regrowth. It will only be by the end of the centurythat tree-species penetration of new areas and shifts of zonal boundaries may be expected.The predicted increase in potential evaporation may result in a reduction of wetland areas andslower peat formation. In the north of the Plain, soil-forming processes will presumably respondto warming mainly via accelerated humification. Somewhat enhanced leaching would be typicalfor the subzone of podzolic soils at the end of the century, thus bringing about the initial phase ofsod-podzolic soil formation. The area of chestnut soils will show a tendency to decrease as comparedwith the present day. Some undesirable geomorphological processes and natural hazardsare also considered.

Keywords: warming of climate, changes in vegetation and soils, the paleogeographic analog method, East European Plain

Andrej Alekseevič Veličko, Laboratory of Evolutionary Geography, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Staromonetny per. 29, Moscow 119017, Russia
O. K. Borisova, Russian Academy of Sciences Staromonetny per. 29 109017 Moscow, Russia
E. M. Zelikson, Russian Academy of Sciences Staromonetny per. 29 109017 Moscow, Russia
T. D. Morozova, Russian Academy of Sciences Staromonetny per. 29 109017 Moscow, Russia

Changes in middle course of the river Vistula in historical times

Joanna Plit

Geographia Polonica (2004) vol. 77, iss. 2, pp. 47-61 | Full text

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Abstract:

An attempt is made to reconstruct the sequence of change in a part of the Middle Vistulavalley between the 11th and late 20th centuries, using historical methods. The most detailedanalysis was possible for the changes of the last 250 years. It was possible to document the timeof the onset of the change in the character of the river from dominantly meandering to one thatwas characterised by braiding, suggesting the anthropogenic influences that have modified thenatural processes (for example: deforestation, changes in rural management, development offlood embankments).

Keywords: Vistula river valley, historical analyses, bed river channel changes

Joanna Plit [plitjo@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

The Landscape-ecological Plan in the Process of Rural Landscape Development Supported by SAPARD

Monika Kopecka

Geographia Polonica (2005) vol. 77, iss. 2, pp. 63-78 | Full text

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Abstract:

The aim of this article is to point to the possible interface between landscape-ecologicalplanning and programmes supported by the European Community. Priorities and measuresembraced by SAPARD were used in a landscape-ecological plan applied at the local level.Five methodological steps based on the LANDEP methodics, i.e. Landscape-Ecological (L-E)analysis, L-E synthesis, L-E interpretation, L-E evaluation and L-E proposals, were applied toprepare the Proposal for optimal utilization of the study area. Being a compulsory part of territorialplanning, the L-E plan is a way in which to include measures resulting from CommonAgricultural Policy (CAP) reform into landscape utilization proposals in Slovakia.

Keywords: SAPARD, landscape-ecological plan, land use, landscape-ecological proposals, Slovakia

Monika Kopecka, Institute of Geography, Slovak Academy of Sciences Stefanikova 49 814 73 Bratislava, Slovak Republic