Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3

Articles

Bed material extraction and its effects on the forms and processes of the lower Balason River in the Darjeeling Himalayas, India

Lakpa Tamang, Deepak Kumar Mandal

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3, pp. 393-405 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2015.3

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Abstract:

High intensity rains bring about landslides and high surface run -off in the upper catchment of the Balason River. Huge quantities of weathered materials as sediment load are being deposited in the river’s lower course. The extent and intensity of this bed material extraction have taken such a toll that immediate attention is necessary to reduce the associated effects on the forms and processes of the Balason River’s lower course. In this paper, an attempt has been made to closely analyse the prevailing effects of human interference noticed by the authors during this study. The methodology adopted during this study is field based. The changing cross sections and fluvial characteristic of the river were continuously observed. The extraction of bed materials was done directly from the riverbed and from adjacent flood plains and also from terraces. The extractions are responsible for the prevailing bed erosion and channel diversions because extraction pits are what are left behind. In the long term, if not controlled, the effects would be detrimental to the entire fluvial characteristics of the river.

Keywords: Balason River, bed erosion, bed material extraction, Darjeeling Himalayas, scouring and filling

Lakpa Tamang, North Bengal University Department of Geography & Applied Geography P.O. NBU, Rajarammohanpur, District Darjeeling – 734 013, West Bengal: India
Deepak Kumar Mandal, North Bengal University Department of Geography & Applied Geography P.O. NBU, Rajarammohanpur, District Darjeeling – 734 013, West Bengal: India

Automatic building extraction based on multiresolution segmentation using remote sensing data

Neeti Shrivastava, Praveen Kumar Rai

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3, pp. 407-421 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0026

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Abstract:

Analysis of high resolution remote sensing images, included in the object-oriented approach, involved classifying the image objects according to class descriptions organised in an appropriate knowledge base. This technique is created by means of inheritance mechanisms, concepts, and methods of fuzzy logic and semantic modeling. The process of the object oriented classification mainly involved two sections: multiresolution segmentation and image classification. Multiresolution segmentation is a new procedure for image object extraction. It allows the segmentation of an image into a network of homogeneous image regions at any chosen resolution. These image object primitives represent image information in an abstract form, serving as building blocks and information carries for subsequent classification. A study was taken up to performobject oriented fuzzy classification using high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1 fused with IRS-1C, LISSIV data) for automatic building extraction in the study area covering the administrative area of BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited) colony, Haridwar, Uttrakhand (India). The study area was located at 29°56’55.51”N to 29°56’11.49”N latitude and 78°05’42.45”E to 78°07’00.09”E longitude. Two approaches were used: applying different spatial filters, and object orientation. The merged image is filtered using different high pass filters, such as: Kirsch, Laplace, Prewitt, Sobel, and Canny filtered images. The overall accuracy of the classified image was 0.93, and Kappa accuracy was 0.89. The produced accuracy for buildings, vegetation, and shadows were 0.9545, 1.0, and 0.8888, respectively, whereas user accuracy for buildings vegetation, and shadows were1.0, 0.9375, and 1.0, respectively. Overall classification accuracy was based on TTA mask (training and test area mask) and it was 0.97. Kappa accuracy was 0.95.

Keywords: building extraction, high resolution data, multiresolution segmentation, object oriented fuzzy classification, spatial filter

Neeti Shrivastava, Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun Uttrakhand: India
Praveen Kumar Rai, Department of Geography Banaras Hindu University Varanasi-221005, Uttar Pradesh: India

Is there a place for bioindication in the geographical sciences? A focus on two groups (Carabidae and Araneae)

Edyta Regulska

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3, pp. 423-437 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.2015.2

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Abstract:

This paper is a brief review of the current state of Carabidae and Araneae usefulness in indicator-based, geographical science studies. The database of scientific papers on the ISI Web of Science (Elsevier and Springer) was the main source of information. Only papers that considered landscape and addressed human activity in relation to selected taxa were chosen for further analyses. The articles with an explicit ecological character and which showed no potential possibilities for wider application in geographical research were not used. The selected papers were examined with respect to: the leading subject matter, area considered, applications,repetitiveness of the data collecting, and with respect to the aboveground and underground compartments. For clarity’s sake, areas of land cover, land use, and human management were divided into four categories. The categories were ordered from 1 to 4, according to increasingly human-induced pressure starting with (1) areas of a natural state, (2) proceeding to forests, (3) farm land, and (4) finally to urban/suburban. This non-exhaustive review confirms the very broad possibilities of applying selected taxa as indicators in geographical studies. Such an application refers to both the range of possibilities of the study location choice (forest, arable, suburban areas etc.), and the subject matter of the study. Faunistic indicators can supply geographical researchers with quantitative and qualitative data. The data then allow for an estimation of the ecological response, due to the variety of changes taking place in the ecosystem. Faunistic indicators areinvaluable tools for indirectly estimating subtle environmental changes. Such changes include those which are the result of a specific interaction between ecosystem components, which are difficult to measure using traditional methods. The impact of human activities can thus be assessed in a much more cost-effective way. A key methodological aspect is to choose the most accurate faunistic groups for the study as well as using standardised method of collecting. It is also important to consider the environmental parameters which havean impact on the selected bioindicators.

Keywords: bioindication, land use, habitat variables, Carabidae, Araneae

Edyta Regulska [eregulska@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland

Regional features of the bioclimate of Central and Southern Europe against the background of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification

Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Jarosław Baranowski, Gerd Jendritzky, Anna Błażejczyk, Peter Bröde, Dusan Fiala

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3, pp. 439-453 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0027

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Abstract:

This paper presents an application of the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI to studies of regional variability in human-biometeorological conditions. The variability in question was assessed by reference to selected meteorological stations representing Central and Southern Europe, i.e. Kołobrzeg, Warsaw and Świeradów (in Poland), Prague, Budapest, Ljubljana, Milan, Rome and Athens, with the bioclimatic features characterising these localities being presented against the background of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. In line with that classification, the first five stations are found to represent the cold climate zones (Dfb, Dfc). The last four stations are in turn located in the temperate climate zones (Cfa, Cfb, Csa). Seasonal changes in UTCI values and the frequency of occurrence of UTCI categories are discussed. Significant regional differences in bioclimatic characteristics were found between the stations representing various types of climate. While the highest summer values for UTCI are very similar at all stations (39-42°C), the frequency of occurrence of days with at least strong heat stress (SHS) varied from 2% at the coastal station of Kołobrzeg in Poland to more than 50% at the Milan, Rome and Athens stations. In winter the lowest UTCI values are much differentiated regionally, from -54°C at the mountain station in Świeradów, Poland,to -22°C in Rome. In the zone of cold climate, the frequency of occurrence of days with at least strong coldstress (SCS) is >40%, while in the temperate climates, strong cold stress is characteristic of less than 2% of winter days.

Keywords: human bioclimate, Universal Thermal Climate Index, Köppen-Geiger climate classification, seasonal and regional variability of bioclimate

Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland
Jarosław Baranowski [j.bar@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland
Peter Bröde, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) Ardeystr 67, D-44139 Dortmund: Germany
Dusan Fiala, ErgonSim-Comfort Energy Efficiency Holderbuschweg 47, D-70563 Stuttgart: Germany

Mean daily values for bare-soil temperature measured and calculated using standard and automatic methods

Joanna Kajewska-Szkudlarek, Marian Rojek

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3, pp. 455-465 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0028

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Abstract:

This study presents the results of an analysis of mean daily values for soil temperature measured using mercury thermometers and electronic sensors during the period 2000-2009 at the Wrocław-Swojec Observatory. Daily averages were calculated on the basis of three measurements a day made using standard devices, as well as in two ways from automatic data: from the same terms and from all 24 hours. Linear regression, frequency and significance of differences, time series analysis (i.e. autocorrelation analysis and seasonal decomposition using the additive model) were performed to determine whether a change in the method of calculating mean daily values might reduce the differences between the two methods.

Keywords: automatic method, daily averages, seasonal decomposition, soil temperature, standard station, time series

Joanna Kajewska-Szkudlarek, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences Institute of Environmental Engineering
Marian Rojek, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences Institute of Environmental Development and Protection pl. Grunwaldzki 24, 50-363 Wrocław: Poland

Influence of the Czorsztyn-Sromowce Wyżne Reservoir Complex on the Dunajec River thermal-regime

Łukasz Wiejaczka, Małgorzata Kijowska-Strugała, Paweł Pierwoła, Mariusz Nowak

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3, pp. 467-482 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0029

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Abstract:

The main objective of this paper was to demonstrate the changes in the natural thermal regime of the middle course of the Dunajec River, caused by the construction of the reservoir complex in the villages of Czorsztyn and Sromowce Wyżne 1994-1997. The analysis is based on water temperature measurements conducted in the river longitudinal profile, four times at the turn of 2012/2013 under hydrometeorological conditions for each season of the year. The field research results were expanded to include an analysis of archival materials relating to the temperature of the Dunajec River, in the hydrological years from 1984 to 2007, at the village of Krościenko’s water-gauging station. The station is located approximately 22 km downstream from the Czorsztyn and Sromowce Wyżne Reservoirs. The analysis showed that the formation of the Czorsztyn-Sromowce Wyżne Reservoir Complex caused a distinct change in the thermal regime of the mid-Dunajec River. Under favorable conditions these changes reach the Rożnów-Czchów Reservoir Complex.

Keywords: Carpathians, Czorsztyn Reservoir, Dunajec River, Sromowce Wyżne Reservoir, water temperature

Łukasz Wiejaczka [wieja@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland
Małgorzata Kijowska-Strugała [mkijowska@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Comparison of two methods of warm and cold wave identification based on the example of selected cities of the moderate and cold zone

Agnieszka Krzyżewska

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3, pp. 483-492 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0030

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Abstract:

The following paper compares two methods for identifying warm and cold waves, representing different methodological approaches: the ‘relative’ approach, i.e. wave identification based on the standard deviation, andthe ‘arbitrary’ approach, i.e. wave identification based on a specified thermal threshold. The 1981-2010 comparisonis based on data from eleven selected large cities of the world. The cities are located in zones C and D according to the Köppen climatic classification. More of the thermal waves and their parameters (number of waves, number of days in waves, their durations, and number of warm and cold days) were determined by means of the relative method than the arbitrary method. Cold waves and cold days distinguished by means of both methods, predominated over warm days and warm waves in a given period, whereas the number and duration of warm waves and warm days increased.

Keywords: warm and cold wave, large cities of the world, thermal wave identification methods

Agnieszka Krzyżewska, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management al. Kraśnicka 2 cd, 20-718 Lublin: Poland

Very warm nights in the Polish coastal area of the Baltic Sea

Arkadiusz Marek Tomczyk

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3, pp. 493-502 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0031

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Abstract:

The first aim of the study was to investigate the multiannual variability of the occurrence of very warm nights. The second aim was to define synoptic situations determining the occurrence of the very warm nights. The study used daily data concerning the maximum, minimum, and mean daily air temperatures from four stations located in the Polish coastal area of the Baltic Sea. The data were recorded between 1971 and 2010. A very warm night was considered to be when there was a minimum temperature >18.0°C. A hot (tropical) nightwas considered to be when there was a minimum temperature >20.0°C. During the analysed period, a total number of very warm nights on the coast in the analysed period fluctuated between 69 in the town of Łeba and 150 in the town of Świnoujście. The occurrence of the very warm nights was mainly connected to the inflow of polar maritime and tropical air masses.

Keywords: air masses, Baltic Sea coast, circulation, synoptic situations, very warm night

Arkadiusz Marek Tomczyk, Adam Mickiewicz University Institute of Physical Geography and Environmental Planning Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań: Poland

Research notes

Assessing the water footprint of national consumption for Poland

Małgorzata Stępniewska

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3, pp. 503-514 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0012

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Abstract:

The water footprint (WF) of national consumption is an indicator that takes into account both the direct (domestic water use) and indirect (water required to produce the products consumed) water use of consumers within a country. This study quantifies the water footprint of national consumption in Poland on national and regional levels. It tracks the consumptive use of rainwater (green WF) and ground and surface water (blue WF), and water pollution (gray WF). The total WF of national consumption in Poland in the 2006-2011 period was 53.6 Gm3/yr (72% green, 10% blue, 18% gray). The average consumer in Poland had a WF of 1,400.5 m3/yr. Agricultural goods provided the largest contribution to the WF of the average consumer (1,241.4 m3/cap/yr), followed by industrial goods (145.6 m3/cap/yr), and finally domestic water use (13.5 m3/cap/yr). The assessment of the WF has formed a new interesting field for integrated geographical studies. It provides useful data for informing consumers about the environmental impacts of their lifestyle and consumption choices. In water policy, it can also create a basis for discussing water allocation and issues related to sustainable, equitable, and efficient water use.

Keywords: consumption, virtual water, water, water footprint, Poland

Project Report

The impact of socio-economic changes on the natural processes and transformation of geoecosystems in the Gorce Mountains

Anna Bucała

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3, pp. 515-518 | Full text

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Anna Bucała [abucala@zg.pan.krakow.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

Poland on maps

Spatially explicit changes in land ownership through 3 socio-political systems: A case study from southeast Poland

Andrzej Affek

Geographia Polonica (2015) vol. 88, iss. 3, pp. 519-530 | Full text
doi: https://doi.org/10.7163/GPol.0032

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Abstract:

Spatially explicit analysis of land ownership changes can provide a unique opportunity to trace land ownership and determine spatial patterns of inheritance. In this paper, the structure of land ownership in the age of feudalism (1852), communism (1965) and capitalism (2008) was reconstructed for a landscape-scale study area - the Upper Wiar River Basin in the Polish Eastern Carpathians. Austrian cadastre and post-war land registers were used as source data. Trajectories of land ownership changes were mapped and discussed. The similarity of landowner types was determined by means of correspondence analysis. The results generally showed how highly unstable land ownership is when socio-political systems are in flux.

Keywords: Austrian cadastre • land register • trajectories of landowners • feudalism • communism • capitalism • Upper Wiar River Basin

Andrzej Affek [a.affek@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland