Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53

Changes in the geographical environment of Poland

Articles

Progress in research on the evolution of the geographical environment of Poland

Leszek Starkel

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 5-18 | Full text

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Leszek Starkel, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-018 Krakow, Sw. Jana 22, Poland

The Tertiary environment of Poland

Sylwia Gilewska

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 19-42 | Full text

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At the beginning of the Tertiary there came into being the three principalpalaeogeographical units of Poland's territory which showed different developmentaltendencies. The vast Tethys Ocean prevailed in the south throughout the LowerTertiary. In upper Tertiary times, emergence of the Carpathians took place there. In thenorth, the present Polish Lowlands showed dominant tendencies towards subsidencecausing repeated transgression of the shallow Lower Tertiary epicontinental seas. Inupper Tertiary times, here extended the central inland basin and later on either aperiodically flooded area or a residual lake of marine origin. The above units weredivided by a land-bridge named the meta-Carpathian elevation (J. Nowak 1927). Theremaining portion of it is the present belt of both ancient orogens and uplands markedby a diversity of structure-controlled relief types. The history of relief will be describedagainst the background of vegetation and climatic conditions prevailing in the differentphases of the Tertiary.Since most of Poland's territory has been buried in Quaternary times by theFennoscandian inland-ice, the state of preservation of the old surfaces differs widely.Furthermore, the ice-free areas were subjected to intense periglacial processes. As aconsequence, the Tertiary relief had to be reconstructed in southern Poland(L. Starkel 1965). The various erosional-denudational relief types surround frequently,in a series of steps, the great tectonic elevations reflecting both the vertical zonation offeatures and successive stages in the relief evolution. The latter may be inferred from acomplex analysis of the different genetic-chronologic relief types, associated smallerlandforms, and of waste- and allogenic sheets. The text is illustrated by fourpalaeogeomorphological maps which are based on the published data cited under"References".

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Sylwia Gilewska, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland

Depositional models and ice-front dynamics in northwestern Poland: a methodological approach

Stefan Kozarski

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 43-52 | Full text

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Ice marginal deposits and forms together with the so-called directional elements oftills, streamlined forms and striated rocks are a fundamental source of informationabout the directions of movement and extent lines of Pleistocene ice sheets. Theirinformative functions are best in areas of the last glaciation because of freshness ofsedimentological and geomorphic record. Hence, they have been most successfully usedin establishing the maximum extent of the last Scandinavian ice sheet and its waningphases in the North Polish Plain at an over-regional (Bartkowski 1969; Galon 1968,1972; Roszko 1968; Różycki 1973) and regional (Bartkowski 1967; Karczewski andRoszko 1972; Kliewe and Kozarski 1979; Kozarski 1962; Rotnicki 1963; Żynda 1967)spatial scale. The growing knowledge on glaciarization processes and ice sheet extensionbrought also increasing information about ice-front dynamics. It results from descriptionspresented in literature on this subject that attention has been mostly focused ontwo extreme states of ice-front behaviour namely:(1) the state of high activity and advance recorded by the presence of thrust ridgescontaining glaciotectonic structures, and(2) the state of complete passiveness represented by disintegration features, i. e.dead-ice forms and deposits containing gravity deformation structures.The first state is easily detectable, wheras the other one poses more interpretationproblems because the preceding it slow ice-front advance and/or dynamic equilibriumrecorded by deposits, except some cases (Kasprzak and Kozarski 1984; Kozarski 1978,1981; Roszko 1968), has been ignored. Direct causes comprised here déficiences in toogeneral programmes and very few detailed research procedures which did not promotecareful identification and advanced interpretation of deposits occurring in marginalzones. As a consequence simplifications in the reconstruction of déglaciation processappeared with an exaggerated preference for the model of vast zonal ice-sheet wastage.This gave rise to search for new approaches in studies of deposits in marginal zonesso that a better, broad and objective basis might be provided for a reconstruction of thelast ice sheet behaviour in frontal parts during déglaciation.

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Stefan Kozarski, Committee of Geographical Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences

Main phases of erosion and accumulation in the Prosna valley in the last glacial-interglacial cycle

Karol Rotnicki

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 53-66 | Full text

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The problem of associating the main phases of erosion and accumulation in rivervalleys with specific climatic phases of the glacial-interglacial cycle has been known for along time (Soergel 1921; Penck 1938; Trevisan 1949; Jahn 1956a, b; Schumm 1965;Rotnicki 1974a; Kozarski and Rotnicki 1977, 1978, 1983; Starkel 1983). In the initialperiod of the investigation of this problem the prevailing view was that expressed bySoergel (1921), among others, that conditions existing in cold periods of the Pleistocenefavoured intensive accumulation in river valleys resulting in high valley filling. By thesame view, interglacial periods were characterized by deep erosion.

As the time passed, newer and newer studies kept modifying this view. Jahn(1956a, b) expressed the opinion that the erosion phase appears twice in theglacial-interglacial cycle: first at the turn of an interglacial and a glacial, and then at thetransition from the glacial to a temperate period. Schumm (1965) presents a somewhatdifferent view on this problem. According to him, the erosion appears in a late glacialand keeps operating well into early phase of an interglacial, and the tendency towardsvertical stabilization of valley floors appears in the optimum of the interglacial. He is ofthe opinion that in interglacial periods accumulation and aggradation cannot be tracedin river valleys. They appear only at the beginning of a next cold period. There is noerosion phase between those of interglacial stabilization and cold aggradation assumedby Jahn (1956a, b).

Later, opinions on this matter underwent further evolution, especially concerningthose river valleys which were directly affected by the recession of the last inland ice. Insuch valleys the phase of deep erosion took place much earlier, viz. when deglaciationstarted, that is, about 18000 years BP. This was pointed out by Rotnicki (1966, 1974a),Galon (1968), Maruszczak (1968) and Różycki (1972). It should also be added thatopinions concerning Holocene tendencies of fluvial processes are not as undivided asthose referring to Pleistocene interglacial periods.

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Karol Rotnicki, Quaternary Research Institute, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland

The Słupia valley in the vicinity of Słupsk towards the close of the Vistulian and in the Holocene

Wacław Florek

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 67-84 | Full text

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In the investigations of the post-glacial development of river valleys and of theevolution of their channels the rivers flowing from the Pomeranian area directly into theBaltic Sea were generally left out. It does not mean, however, that there are no studiesconcerning the geological structure and the geomorphology of river valleys in this area.But most of those studies have a general character (cf. Deecke 1911; Biilow 1930;Keilhack 1930; Sylwestrzak 1973. 1978a. b; Piasecki 1976, 1982). The common featureof those studies is that they are but little supported by field investigations. B. Rosa(1964) has made an attempt at a comprehensive solution of the problem of thegeological structure of littoral river valleys; making use of geological archivals and ofhis own observation he has presented his views on the development of littoral rivervalleys and the problems to be solved. He has identified rather large sections ofaccumulation in the valley bottoms of littoral rivers (50 km for the Slupia, 13 km for theLupawa), as well as the effect of the sea level fluctuations on the development of organiccovers in the valley bottoms.In their studies of the Radunia valley Rachocki (1973, 1974, 1981) and Koutaniemiand Rachocki (1981) have noticed the role of late-glacial lakes in the development ofriver valleys and they have afforded important information concerning the features offluvial deposits, the rate of fluvial processes and the effect of hydrotechnical interferencein the river channel on the course and rate of those processes.The Pleistocene developmental stage of the catchment area of the Slupia and itsvalley has been lately the subject of Mojski and Orlowski's (1978) and of Orlowski's(1981, 1983) studies. They have been based on the existing geological material and on adetailed analysis of morphologic conditions.It seems, however, that the present state of knowledge on the postglacial stage oflittoral river valleys development has been correctly evaluated by Kondracki (1978) andMarsz (1984) who have indicated that, up to now, the development of no littoral rivervalley has been studied.In 1981 — 1985 at the Department of Geography of the High School of Pedagogy,Słupsk, the present author supervised work on the following subject: "The evolutionand mechanism of transformation of the valley bottoms of the Słupia and the Lupawa".It was part of the interdepartmental problem MR 1/25: "Transformation of Poland'sgeographical environment" coordinated by Professor Leszek Starkel. Substantial helpin this research was brought by the High School of Pedagogy in Słupsk, which financeda part of the radiocarbon dating and some other specialistic work.

The study was carried out with reference to the program IGCP No 158 A"Palaeohydrologic changes in the temperate zone during the last 15000 years",subproject A: "Fluvial environment". A guide-book for investigations, prepared andpublished by Starkel and Thornes (1981) has proved to be extremely useful.During their work the authors taking part in the investigations published orprepared for print a number of studies (Orłowski 1981; E. Florek 1983, in press;E. Florek, W. Florek, in press; W. Florek 1983, in press a, b, c; Alexandrowicz et al., inpress). Further studies are being prepared.

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Wacław Florek, Department of Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Geograpghy and Regional Studies, Pomeranian University in Słupsk, Partyzantów 27, 76-200 Słupsk, Poland

Morphometry and morphodynamics of the lower Vistula channel mesoforms

Zygmunt Babiński

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 85-100 | Full text

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Mesoforms are of major importance in the study of channel processes defined byPopov (1977) as an unsteady continuous movement of the river channel bed under theinfluence of flowing water. Kondratiev et al. (1982: p. 23) account for this in a specialway. They have stated explicitly that "the study of mesoforms is a way by means ofwhich the fundamental principles of a typical channel process may be discovered and itslogic may be understood". Following earlier suggestions (Kurpianov and Kopaljani1979), they also state that the channel process is chiefly conditioned by a mechanism forload transport and they establish certain relationships between them. These relationshipshave also been built up by Schumm (after Shen 1982; p. 13) and by Winkley et al.(1984: p. 84). From these data it can be inferred that a channel pattern (channel process)and an adequate system of mesoforms depend on the quantity and quality of thetransportée load.Accordng to Rzhanitsin (1984: p. 130), the mechanism for load transport is acomplex process. It occurs continuously in one case or takes place in a series of jerks tobecome cyclical in another case. Continuous load transport leads to the formation ofdunes and sand ripple marks, i.e. microforms, whereas discontinuous transport results incentral and lateral bars (islands), i.e. mesoforms.The term channel mesoforms refers to forms, the size of which corresponds with thechannel width and high stability of which is determined by hydraulic geometry of astream (Kondratiev and Popov 1967; Antropovski 1969). They usually comprise singlelarge sand-gravel waves and fixed lateral bars, the surface of which lies in a zone ofaverage Wcter stages although they are formed at high water stages.British-Vmerican investigators, for example Church «and Jones (1982), Cant andWalker (1978), Ferguson and Werritty (1983), Kellerhals et al. (1976), Schumm (1985),use a broaler typology of mesoforms. According to Znamenskaya (1976: p. 9), it ispartly basel on variations of identical forms. N. D. Smith (1978: Table 1) provides acomprehensive description of channel mesoform divisions and nomenclature. He uses asmany as 32 terms referring to forms of bar type, which are based on the morphologicalcriterion.Kondratiev and Popov (1967), as well as Znamenskaya (1976) group mesoforms intolongitudinal sand waves, lateral and central bars, depending on channel conditions.A different ;lassification of bars dependent on the degree of form stability (Fig. 11.4) and based on the relationship between form morphology and functions of stream hydraulicresistance and the amount of load (Table 11.2) has been given by Church and Jones(1982). The above divisions and classifications supplemented by other studies, includingthose by Krigstrom (1962), Task Force (1966), Collinson (1970), Kellerhals et al. (1976),Barwis (1978), Cant and Walker (1978), Levey (1978), Ferguson and Werritty (1983),Carson (1984) and Schumm (1985), are presented as a scheme in Figure 1. Recurrence ofnames in a variety of systems in the scheme is due to the complexity of load transportand to the naming of different forms with identical words by different investigators.

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Zygmunt Babiński, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Toruń, Poland

The role of precipitation waters in decalcification of loesses in western Roztocze (The catchment area of the upper Sanna River)

Bronisław Janiec

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 101-114 | Full text

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Considerable areas of south Poland are covered by loesses (Jahn 1950, 1956;Maruszczak 1972b, 1980; Jersak 1973). The content of carbonates in the mineralcomposition of these deposits varies from a few to over ten percent.The purpose of this paper was to determine the role of precipitation waters indecalcification of carbonate loesses on the example of the upper Sanna catchment area.Leaching of loess-like deposits is not discussed in this paper.

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Bronisław Janiec, Institute of Earth Sciences, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin. Poland

Dynamics of shallow groundwater temperature in the Vistula abandoned valley, the Płock Basin

Ryszard Glazik

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 115-128 | Full text

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The temperature of shallow groundwater is markedly affected by air temperature,the height of water table and its changes throughout the year, thermal conductivity andground moisture in the zone of aeration, slope exposure and terrain cover, i.e. land usepatterns and built-up areas. Thus, the problem is complex but little attention has beendevoted to it in the hydrological study.The textbooks of hydrogeology contain the basic information concerning factorswhich affect groundwater temperature and the depth of diurnal, seasonal and annualtemperature fluctaution zones (Marchacz 1960; Pazdro 1964). These problems alsodominate the latest textbook of groundwater hydrology (Kriz 1983). The problems ofgroundwater temperature dynamics fall outside their scope.Few detailed studies on the thermal properties of shallow groundwater areconcerned with selected aspects of the problem. An example concerns a fewcharacteristic wells where Mikulski (1963) pointed out the dependence of groundwatertemperature on the thickness and geological structure of the zone of aeration.Skibniewska (1963, 1964), Nawrocka and Sadowska (1964) dealt with groundwatertemperature fluctuations at different depths in relation to air temperature in Poland'sterritory. Dynowski (1968) has established that groundwater temperature depends onthermal conductivity of the water-bearing and overlying rocks. Relationships betweenair temperature and water temperature in two wells differing in geological structurewere considered by Gutry-Korycka (1969). She suggests that shallow groundwatertemperature dynamics is largely dependent on air temperature, thermal conductivity ofthe ground in the zone of aeration, annual fluctuations of depths to water andgroundwater character, i.e. chemical composition.Publications pertinent to the influence of slope exposure and land use patterns, i.e.terrain cover, on groundwater temperature have been lacking so far in the Polishscientific literature. One of the objectives of the present study is to assess the significanceof these factators.

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Ryszard Glazik, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Polish Academy of Sciences, Toruri, Poland

Modélisation du topoclimat compte tenu de l'analyse du bilan thermique de la surface active de la terre

Jerzy Grzybowski

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 129-134 | Full text

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Jerzy Grzybowski, Institut de Géographie et d'Aménagement du Territoire, Académie Polonaise des Sciences, Varsovie

Types of bioclimate in Poland

Teresa Kozłowska-Szczęsna

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 135-140 | Full text

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Four bioclimatic types have been distinguished in Poland: strongstimulating bioclimate (type I), moderate stimulating bioclimate (type II), mildstimulating bioclimate (type III), and weak stimulating bioclimate (type IV). Twosubtypes have been marked within each of these four types: bioclimate of forestedterrain, with spare features (subtype A), and bioclimate of urbanized terrain, with strainfeatures (subtype B). The initial material for this paper was taken from data collected bynearly 100 state-run meteorological stations and posts between 1961 and 1970. The decade was then marked by hot summer in 1963, cool summers in 1962 and 1965, frostywinters 1962/63 and 1969/70, wet summers in 1966 and 1970, and dry summers in 1964and 1969; in all, the period had embraced a range of extreme weather conditions and,therefore, be accepted as representative for evaluation of Poland's bioclimate.It is noteworthy that non — Polish bibliography gives few examples of cartographicanalyses made from the point of view of man's bioclimatology. One such example is amap of West Germany (Becker and Wagner 1972).

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Teresa Kozłowska-Szczęsna [klimat@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-818 Warsaw, Twarda 51/55, Poland

A model for bioclimatic evaluation and typology of health resorts and recreation areas. Concept of a method

Krzysztof Błażejczyk

Geographia Polonica (1988) vol. 53, pp. 141-149 | Full text

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Applied climatology has perceived a clear need of objective evaluation and typologyof climates for specific purposes. Bioclimatology, too, is in need of ways to objectivelyevaluate geographical environment in health resorts for their usefulness for recreationand climatotherapy.The paper presents an attempt to employ simple mathematical and physical modelsfor evaluation of bioclimatic conditions of a given area and typology of selectedfacilities. Data collected from 1961 till 1970 from 19 Polish health resorts, located indifferent bioclimatic conditions, were used to check functioning of the model (Fig. 1).The descriptive method and quality classification are the most frequently usedtechniques in evaluation of bioclimatic conditions. Their chief deficiency, however, isthat they are too subjective. Technique of terrain evaluation which would involve amodel has been rarely employed so far, the first such attempts being one by Warszyńska (1973) — from the point of view of tourism, and Błażejczyk (1980 a, b, 1983) — forbioclimatology.Comprehensive bioclimatic evaluation of health resorts and recreation areas shouldtake into account not only general climatic conditions, but also other components ofgeographical environment, which perceivably modify the local dimate. They include inthe first place, relief and land organization.

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Krzysztof Błażejczyk [k.blaz@twarda.pan.pl], Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Sciences Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw: Poland